cardiovascular_disease

Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). 1).


Atherosclerosis (AS) is considered one of the primary causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Unpredictable rupture of a atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque triggers adverse cardiovascular events such as acute myocardial syndrome (ACS) and even sudden death (SCD). Therefore, assessing the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques and early intervention is significant in reducing CVD mortality.


Nearly half of cardiovascular disease patients suffer from severe hypertension complications. Hypertension is thought to cause abnormal platelet activation and increases the risk of thrombosis, but the related mechanism is still vague.

A study hypothesized that the abnormal hemodynamics of blood under hypertension might affect platelet function and accelerate thrombosis by activating mechanoreceptor Piezo1.

Methods: To assess the activation effect of hypertension on mechanoreceptor Piezo1, we injected Piezo1 agonist Yoda1 and antagonist GsMTx-4 through the tail vein, then examined the platelet activation status and thrombosis.

The results displayed that antagonist GsMTx-4 effectively inhibited calcium influx caused by hypertension and agonist Yoda1. Anti-thrombotic studies proved that the inhibition of Piezo1 effectively inhibited arterial thrombosis and reduced the infarct size of stroke in hypertensive mice.

A study explains the activation of mechanoreceptor Piezo1 under hypertension is the key to abnormal platelet activation and thrombosis while providing novel platelet intervention strategies to prevent thrombosis 2).

Smoking.


Lack of exercise.


Diet.


Obesity.


High blood pressure.


High LDL or low HDL cholesterol levels.


Family history of heart disease or other cardiovascular disease.


Age.


Previous studies have analysed the epidemic characteristics of supernormal vascular aging (SUPERNOVA), and found that SUPERNOVA were significantly associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

The population with Supernormal vascular aging was mostly women, nonsmokers, nondrinkers, and those with higher education. They had lower levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors and healthier lifestyles. The results of logistics regression showed that the influencing factors of SUPERNOVA include age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, resting heart rate, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, and uric acid. However, the effects of these factors were different across age groups. Tao et al. also observed that in addition to the unalterable factors (age and sex), only resting heart rate above 80 bpm (OR = 0.396, 95% CI: 0.231-0.681) and SBP (OR = 0.945, 95% CI: 0.932-0.958) were significantly associated with odds of SUPERNOVA in participants without cardiovascular risk factors.

This study investigated the characteristics of the population with SUPERNOVA and the factors influencing it, which provided a basis for different populations to take preventive measures to slow down the process of vascular aging 3).

Nanomedicine possesses tremendous advantages in achieving the integration of the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerotic plaques because of its magnetic, optical, thermal, and catalytic properties. Based on the pathological characteristics of vulnerable plaques, stimuli-responsive nanoplatforms and surface-functionalized nanoagents have been designed and drawn great attention for accomplishing the precise imaging and treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques due to their superior properties, such as high bioavailability, lesion-targeting specificity, on-demand cargo release, and low off-target damage. Zhang et al. generalized the characteristics of vulnerable plaques, and systematically summarized some targeted strategies for boosting the accuracy of plaque vulnerability evaluation by imaging and the efficacy of plaque stabilization therapy (including antioxidant therapy, macrophage depletion therapy, regulation of lipid metabolism therapy, anti-inflammation therapy, etc.). In addition, they discussed existing challenges and prospects in this field and believe it will provide new thinking for the diagnosis and treatment of CVDs in the near future 4).


1)
Cho SM, Geocadin RG. Neurology of Cardiovascular Disease. Semin Neurol. 2021 Aug;41(4):329-330. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730955. Epub 2021 Aug 19. PMID: 34412142.
2)
Zhao W, Wei Z, Xin G, Li Y, Yuan J, Ming Y, Ji C, Sun Q, Li S, Chen X, Fu W, Zhu Y, Niu H, Huang W. Piezo1 initiates platelet hyperreactivity and accelerates thrombosis in hypertension. J Thromb Haemost. 2021 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/jth.15504. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34411418.
3)
Tao B, Li Y, Wang C, Luo X, Chen S, Wang G, Yang P, Hou L, Cui L, Wu S. Influencing factors of supernormal vascular aging in Chinese population. J Hypertens. 2021 Dec 7. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003023. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34879388.
4)
Zhang S, Liu Y, Cao Y, Zhang S, Sun J, Wang Y, Song S, Zhang H. Targeting the Microenvironment of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques: An Emerging Diagnosis and Therapy Strategy for Atherosclerosis. Adv Mater. 2022 Mar 2:e2110660. doi: 10.1002/adma.202110660. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35238081.
  • cardiovascular_disease.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/03/03 17:34
  • by administrador