Carotid artery stenting (CAS)

Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has experienced an astonishing rate of development, becoming a viable alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the management of carotid artery stenosis. Many trials have attempted to compare both treatment modalities and establish indications for each, depending on clinical and anatomic features.

Eller et al. review the historical evolution of carotid stenting; its main technical aspects, indications, and contraindications; as well as the most important clinical trials comparing CAS and CEA 1).

Primary carotid stenting, performed using self-expanding stents alone without deliberate use of embolic protection devices and balloon angioplasty, has been shown to be effective and faster, cheaper, and potentially safer than conventional techniques.

see Hemodynamic depression.


A retrospective data set of patients (n=76) who underwent CAS from 2007 to 2014 was used as input (training cohort) to a back-propagation ANN using TensorFlow platform. PHD was defined when systolic blood pressure was less than 90mmHg or heart rate was less 50 beats/min that lasted for more than one hour. The resulting ANN was prospectively tested in 33 patients (test cohort) and compared with MLR or SVM models according to accuracy and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.

No significant difference in baseline characteristics between the training cohort and the test cohort was observed. PHD was observed in 21 (27.6%) patients in the training cohort and 10 (30.3%) patients in the test cohort. In the training cohort, the accuracy of ANN for the prediction of PHD was 98.7% and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was 0.961. In the test cohort, the number of correctly classified instances was 32 (97.0%) using the ANN model. In contrast, the accuracy rate of MLR or SVM model was both 75.8%. ANN (AUROC: 0.950; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.813-0.996) showed superior predictive performance compared to MLR model (AUROC: 0.796; 95% CI: 0.620-0.915, p<0.001) or SVM model (AUROC: 0.885; 95% CI: 0.725-0.969, p<0.001).

The ANN model seems to have more powerful prediction capabilities than MLR or SVM model for persistent hemodynamic depression after CAS. External validation with a large cohort is needed to confirm our results 2).


One hundred eighty-one patients were treated over an 11-year period. Preprocedural CT angiography (CTA) was performed in 102 of these. A morphological scale (the Predicting Long-term outcome with Angioplasty of the Carotid artery [PLAC] Scale), with grades from 0 to 4 and A or B, was used to evaluate the circumferential degree of plaque calcification, and the presence or absence of soft plaque. All patients were followed using duplex carotid ultrasound and plain radiographs. Satisfactory morphological outcome was defined as a peak systolic velocity < 120 cm/s and internal carotid artery/common carotid artery ratio < 1.4.

The average follow-up duration was 29.7 months (median 24.5 months, range 0.3-87 months). Univariate logistic regression demonstrated that a low calcification grade (p < 0.001), less thick calcification (p < 0.001), and moderate amounts of soft plaque (p < 0.001) are factors that are highly associated with good long-term outcome. Multivariate analyses confirmed that these factors are independent of each other in predicting outcome.

The long-term morphological outcome of primary carotid stenting was predicted with considerable accuracy by using a straightforward CTA carotid plaque grading scale 3).


319 patients (220 asymptomatic and 99 symptomatic) who underwent carotid angioplasty from 2002 until 2012 for carotid restenosis (CR) that occurred after eversion endarterectomy. During this period, 7993 eversion endarterectomies were done for significant carotid artery stenosis. Significant CR was detected by ultrasound examination and confirmed by digital subtraction angiography or multidetector computed tomography angiography. After angioplasty (with or without stenting), color duplex ultrasound imaging was done after 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and annually thereafter. End points encompassed myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death (fatal myocardial infarction, fatal cardiac failure, fatal stroke), and also puncture site hematoma and recurrent restenosis. Primary end points were analyzed as early results (≤30 days after the procedure), and secondary end points were long-term results (>30 days). Variables and risk factors influencing the early-term and long-term results were also analyzed. Median follow-up was 49.8 ± 22.8 months (range, 17-121 months).

All but one procedure ended with a technical success (99.7%). In the early postoperative period, transient ischemic attack occurred in 2.8% of the patients and stroke in 1.6%, followed by one lethal outcome (0.3%). Stent thrombosis occurred in one patient (0.3%) several hours after the angioplasty, followed by urgent surgery and graft interposition. In the long-term follow-up, there were no transient ischemic attacks or strokes, non-neurologic mortality was 3.13%, and the recurrent restenosis rate was 4.4%. The rate of non-neurologic outcomes during the follow-up was significantly higher in asymptomatic patients than in symptomatic patients (4.54% vs 0%; P = .034). The statically highest rate of transient ischemic attack was verified in patients in whom Precise (Cordis Corporation, New Brunswick, NJ) stents was used (12.2%) and a Spider Fx (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland) cerebral protection device (12.5%) was used. Female gender, coronary artery disease, plaque calcifications, and smoking history were associated with an adverse outcome after angioplasty.

Carotid artery stenting is safe and reliable procedure for CR after eversion endarterectomy treatment, with low rate of postprocedural complications. Type of stent and cerebral embolic protection device may influence the rate of postprocedural neurologic ischemic events 4).

see also Bilateral carotid artery stenting.

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a neuroendovascular treatment where a stent is deployed within the lumen of the carotid artery to prevent a stroke by treating carotid artery stenosis.

It has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. In randomised trials comparing stenting with endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, stenting was associated with a higher risk of procedure-related stroke, particularly in elderly patients, but with lower risks of myocardial infarction, cranial nerve palsy, and access site haematoma 5) 6) 7) 8).

A systematic review showed that the increase in procedure-related risk was driven by non-disabling stroke, with no evidence for a difference in rates of major or disabling stroke or death between the treatments 9).

see Carotid artery stenting complications.

see International Carotid Stenting Study.

A study investigated the effect of residual stenosis after carotid artery stenting (CAS) on periprocedural and long-term outcomes.

Patients treated with CAS for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid arterial stenosis were consecutively enrolled. Residual stenosis was estimated from post-procedure angiography findings. The effects of residual stenosis on 30-day periprocedural outcome and times to restenosis and clinical outcome were analyzed using logistic regression models and Wei-Lin-Weissfeld models, respectively.

A total of 412 patients (age, 64.7 ± 17.0 years; male, 82.0%) were enrolled. The median baseline stenosis was 80% (interquartile range [IQR], 70-90%), which improved to 10% (0-30%) for residual stenosis. Residual stenosis was significantly associated with periprocedural outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.965-0.999, P = 0.01) after adjustment for baseline stenosis, age, hypertension, symptomaticity, and statin use. Over the 5-year observation period, residual stenosis did not increase the global hazard for restenosis and clinical outcome (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.011; 95% CI, 0.997-1.025. In the event-specific model, residual stenosis increased the hazard for restenosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.041; 1.012-1.072) but not for clinical outcome (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.011; 0.997-1.025).

Residual stenosis after carotid artery stenting may be useful to predict periprocedural outcome and restenosis 10).

see Carotid artery stenting case series.

A 68-year-old man was admitted. Neurological examination revealed severe left-sided motor weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no cerebral infarction, but magnetic resonance angiography revealed complete occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. Systemic intravenous injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed within 4h after the onset. But, magnetic resonance angiography still revealed complete occlusion. Revascularization of the right cervical internal carotid artery was performed via endovascular surgery. The occluded artery was successfully recanalized using the Penumbra System® and stent placement at the origin of the internal carotid artery. Immediately after surgery, dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) was initiated, and then cilostazol was added on the following day. Carotid ultrasonography and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography at 14days revealed no further obstruction to flow.

When trying to perform emergency carotid artery stenting within 24h after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administration, several issues require attention, such as the decisions regarding the type of stent and embolic protection device, the selection of antiplatelet therapy and the methods of preventing hyperperfusion syndrome.

Emergency carotid artery stenting for the acute internal carotid artery occlusion may be considered a safe procedure in preventing early stroke recurrence in selected patients 11).

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Jeon JP, Kim C, Oh BD, Kim SJ, Kim YS. Prediction of persistent hemodynamic depression after carotid angioplasty and stenting using artificial neural network model. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2017 Dec 5;164:127-131. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2017.12.005. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29223792.
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International Carotid Stenting Study investigators. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 375: 985–97.
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Bonati LH, Lyrer P, Ederle J, Featherstone R, Brown MM. Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty and stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 9: CD000515.
Kang J, Hong JH, Kim BJ, Bae HJ, Kwon OK, Oh CW, Jung C, Lee JS, Han MK. Residual stenosis after carotid artery stenting: Effect on periprocedural and long-term outcomes. PLoS One. 2019 Sep 9;14(9):e0216592. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216592. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31498785.
Inoue A, Kohno K, Fukumoto S, Ozaki S, Ninomiya S, Tomita H, Kamogawa K, Okamoto K, Ichikawa H, Onoue S, Miyazaki H, Okuda B, Iwata S. Importance of perioperative management for emergency carotid artery stenting within 24h after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: Case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2016 Jul 27;26:108-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.07.027. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27478968.
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