As brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are highflow vascular abnormalities, increased CBF can be identified inside the nidus or draining veins.
Up-regulated VEGF in part of brain and Tie-2, Angiopoietin 2 high expression in endothelial cells (EC) of some vessels may be one of major factors for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (CAVM) formation growth, and rupture in the embryonic period 1).
AVMs that occur in the coverings of the brain are called dural arteriovenous malformation.
The Spetzler-Martin AVM grading system is the most widely used grading system for AVMs.
Epilepsy is the second most common symptom in cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients.
Patients presenting with AVM-associated epilepsy have a favorable seizure outcome after surgical treatment. Long-standing epilepsy and the progress into drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) markedly deteriorate the chances to obtain seizure freedom and should be considered an early factor in establishing the indication for AVM removal 8).
In 164 patients, 31 patients (20.7%) had Spetzler-Martin grade I AVMs, 51 (34.0%) grade II, 47 (31.3%) grade III, 20 (13.3%) grade IV, and 1 (0.7%) grade V. Of the 49 patients (30%) presenting with seizures, 60.4% experienced seizure persistence after treatment. For these patients, radiosurgery was associated with seizure recurrence (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-15.02, P = .021). AVM obliteration was predictive of seizure freedom at last follow-up (P = .002). In contrast, for patients presenting without seizures, 18.4% experienced de novo seizures after treatment, for which surgical resection was identified as an independent risk factor (hazard ratio: 8.65, 95% confidence interval: 3.05-24.5, P < .001).
This data suggest that achieving seizure freedom should not be the primary goal of AVM treatment, surgical resection may result in improved seizure control compared with radiosurgery for patients who present with seizures. Conversely, in patients without presenting seizures, surgical resection increases the risk of new-onset seizures compared with radiosurgery, but primarily within the early posttreatment period. Surgical resection and radiosurgery result in divergent seizure control rates depending on seizure presentation 9).
Primary lobar hemorrhages (usually due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy) are typically seen in elderly. Younger patients may also develop lobar haemorrhages, but in such cases they usually have an underlying lesion (e.g. cerebral arteriovenous malformation).
The most devastating complication of cerebral AVMs is rupture of the nidi resulting in intracerebral hemorrhage. With increasing long-term natural history studies available.
They are of special concern because of the damage they cause when they bleed.
Seven hundred seventy-nine patients underwent 641 microsurgical resections. Complications of surgery leading to a modified Rankin Scale >1 at 12 months occurred in 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-3.3), 20% (95% CI: 15-26), and 41% (95% CI: 30-52) of Spetzler-Ponce class A, SPC B, and SPC C, respectively. The cumulative 9-year freedom from recurrence was 97% for SPC A and 92% for other cAVMs. The 9-year CEA risk was 1.4% (credible range: 0.5%-3.4%) for SPC A, 22% to 24% (credible range: 16%-31%) for SPC B, and 45% to 63% (credible range: 33%-73%) for SPC C bAVM.
CEA presents the treatment outcome in the context of efficacy and provides a basis for comparing outcomes from techniques with different times to elimination of the bAVM 10).