Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (Latin: liquor cerebrospinalis) is a liquid occupying subarachnoid space (cavum subarachnoideale) and ventricles.

CSF is absorbed primarily by arachnoid villi (granulations) that extend into the dural venous sinuses. Other sites of absorption include the choroid plexuses and glymphatics. The rate of absorption is pressure-dependent 1).

Cerebrospinal fluid was not really discovered in terms of its liquid state of matter until the early 16th century A.D. It took three more centuries for physicians to become aware of its cerebrospinal location. Previously, it was thought that cerebral ventricles contained “spiritus animalis” (spirit of the animal).

According to Schaltenbrand, cerebrospinal fluid found in humans and other higher vertebrates replaced the ocean, where 3.5 billion years ago the life had begun 2) 3).

Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics Cerebrospinal fluid physiology.

see Cerebrospinal fluid circulation.

see Cerebrospinal fluid pressure.

see Cerebrospinal fluid production.

see cerebrospinal fluid flow.

see Cerebrospinal fluid volume.

see Cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

The influence that human CSF has on the function of human adipose-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) and human fetal-derived NPCs (hfNPCs) in regard to cell proliferation, survival, and migration demonstrated that human noncancerous CSF promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of hAMSCs and hfNPCs. Preculturing these stem cells in human CSF also increased their migratory speed and distance traveled. Furthermore, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in human CSF enhanced the migration capacity and increased the expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) in both stem cell types. These findings highlight a simple and natural way in which human CSF can enhance the proliferation, migration, and viability of human exogenous primary hAMSCs and hfNPCs. This may provide insight into improving the clinical efficacy of stem cells for the treatment of CNS pathologies 4).

Cerebrospinal fluid infection are serious complication of cerebrospinal fluid shunts and external ventricular drainage.

see Cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

Artificial cerebrospinal fluid

Griffith HB, Jamjoom AB. The Treatment of Childhood Hydrocephalus by Choroid Plexus Coagulation and Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid Perfusion. Br J Neurosurg. 1990; 4:95–100
Schaltenbrand G. Normal and pathological physiology of the cerebrospinal fluid circulation. The Lancet. 1953;261(6765):805–808.
Poznański J. Poszukiwanie modelu wody opisującego hydratację biologicznych makromolekuł Kosmos. 2006;55(2-3):149–164.
Zhu M, Feng Y, Dangelmajer S, Guerrero-Cázares H, Chaichana KL, Smith CL, Levchenko A, Lei T, Quiñones-Hinojosa A. Human cerebrospinal fluid regulates proliferation and migration of stem cells through insulin-like growth factor-1. Stem Cells Dev. 2015 Jan 15;24(2):160-71. doi: 10.1089/scd.2014.0076. PubMed PMID: 25265906.
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