Cerebrovascular disease

Group of brain dysfunctions related to disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death for people, and Neuroendovascular treatment has become the main therapeutic method.

Since the appearance of the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic has emerged affecting millions of people worldwide. Although the main clinical manifestations are respiratory, an increase in neurological conditions, specifically acute cerebrovascular disease, has been detected 1).

Hypertension is the most important cause; it damages the blood vessel lining, endothelium, exposing the underlying collagen where platelets aggregate to initiate a repairing process which is not always complete and perfect. Sustained hypertension permanently changes the architecture of the blood vessels making them narrow, stiff, deformed, uneven and more vulnerable to fluctuations in blood pressure.

A fall in blood pressure during sleep can then lead to a marked reduction in blood flow in the narrowed blood vessels causing ischemic stroke in the morning. Conversely, a sudden rise in blood pressure due to excitation during the daytime can cause tearing of the blood vessels resulting in intracranial hemorrhage. Cerebrovascular disease primarily affects people who are elderly or have a history of diabetes, smoking, or ischemic heart disease. The results of cerebrovascular disease can include a stroke, or occasionally a hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemia or other blood vessel dysfunctions can affect the person during a cerebrovascular incident.

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is involved in homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) metabolism. Both products have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases.

Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation.

The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked 2).

Hernández-Fernández F, Valencia HS, Barbella-Aponte RA, et al. Cerebrovascular disease in patients with COVID-19: neuroimaging, histological and clinical description [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 9]. Brain. 2020;awaa239. doi:10.1093/brain/awaa239
Tabuchi S. Auditory dysfunction in patients with cerebrovascular disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:261824. doi: 10.1155/2014/261824. Epub 2014 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 25401133; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4225841.
  • cerebrovascular_disease.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/11/10 09:08
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