Closed traumatic brain injury are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed-head injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people.
Overall, closed-head injuries and other forms of mild traumatic brain injury account for about 75% of the estimated 1.7 million brain injuries that occur annually in the United States.
Closed head injury (CHI) usually results in severe and permanent neurological impairments, which are caused by several intertwined phenomena, such as cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neuronal loss, astroglial scarring and inflammation.
This may result in lifelong physical, cognitive, or psychological impairment and, thus, are of utmost concern with regards to public health