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Codeine or dihydrocodeine are useful for mild to moderate pain, but the side-effects (nausea and constipation) make them unsuitable for long-term use. There maybe inter-individual variations in effectiveness to codeine as a result of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes leading to differing levels of metabolism.

codeine.txt · Last modified: 2018/01/13 11:39 by administrador