Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has a very high mortality (>25%) and significant morbidity (>50%) among the survivors, and most survivors experience significant cognitive decline across multiple domains, including executive function 1).
A study of Ma et al., from the Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China, explores a potential treatment for cognitive dysfunction following SAH with the demonstration that multi-target drug Cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection (CEGI) can relieve cognitive disorder by decreasing hippocampal neuron apoptosis following SAH in rats. Experimentally, 110 male SD rats were separated at random into Sham (20), SAH+Vehicle (30), SAH+4ml/kg CEGI (30), and SAH+1ml/kg CEGI groups (30) and an endovascular perforation model was created to induce SAH. We discovered that the number of TUNEL positive neurons in the hippocampus was markedly decreased in SAH+4ml/kg and SAH+1ml/kg CEGI groups compared to the SAH+Vehicle group. This finding was associated with an observed decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome-c and PUMA expression, and the suppression of caspase-3 activation following SAH. In Morris water maze tests, the SAH+4ml/kg CEGI group demonstrated a decreased escape latency time and increase in time spent in the target quadrant as well as crossing times of platform region. These results indicate that high doses of CEGI can decrease hippocampal neuron apoptosis and relieve cognitive dysfunction in rats, suggesting that multitarget-drug CEGI exhibits a neuroprotective effect in SAH via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway 2).