Concussion is a heterogeneous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) characterized by a variety of symptoms, clinical presentations, and recovery trajectories.
A concussion is caused by an external force hitting the head. This can happen anywhere, anytime, and to anyone in situations like sports games, car crashes, or falls. In the U.S. alone, reports estimate over 2.5 million cases of concussion annually.
May be accompanied by temporary loss of consciousness.
Is identified in awake individuals.
Has measures of neurologic and cognitive dysfunction.
Brain Trauma Foundation developed this definition based on the most current evidence available. It is used by leading organizations, such as the NCAA.
Five concussion subtypes with varying prevalence within 3 d following injury are commonly seen clinically and identifiable upon systematic literature review. Sleep disturbance, a concussion-associated condition, is also common. There was insufficient information available for analysis of cervical strain. A comprehensive acute concussion assessment defines and characterizes the injury and, therefore, should incorporate evaluations of all 5 subtypes and associated conditions 1).
2 concussion-associated conditions:
1) sleep disturbance
2) cervical strain.