A concussion is a heterogeneous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) characterized by a variety of symptoms, clinical presentations, and recovery trajectories.
May be accompanied by temporary loss of consciousness.
Is identified in awake individuals.
Has measures of neurologic and cognitive dysfunction.
Brain Trauma Foundation developed this definition based on the most current evidence available. It is used by leading organizations, such as the NCAA.
In the U.S. alone, reports estimate over 2.5 million cases of concussion annually.
Five concussion subtypes with varying prevalence within 3 d following injury are commonly seen clinically and identifiable upon systematic literature review. Sleep disturbance, a concussion-associated condition, is also common. There was insufficient information available for analysis of cervical strain. A comprehensive acute concussion assessment defines and characterizes the injury and, therefore, should incorporate evaluations of all 5 subtypes and associated conditions 1).
2 concussion-associated conditions:
1) sleep disturbance
2) cervical strain.