Confidence has a common meaning of a certainty about handling something, such as work, family, social events, or relationships.
Some have ascribed confidence as a state of being certain either that a hypothesis or prediction is correct or that a chosen course of action is the best or most effective. Self-confidence is having confidence in one's self. Arrogance or hubris in this comparison is having unmerited confidence – believing something or someone is capable or correct when they are not. Overconfidence or presumptuousness is excessive belief in someone (or something) succeeding, without any regard for failure. Confidence can be a self-fulfilling prophecy as those without it may fail or not try because they lack it and those with it may succeed because they have it rather than because of an innate ability.
Neurosurgery requires certain personality traits to provide the best possible outcomes for patients. This stems from the fact that neurosurgery is one of the most complex forms of surgery and therefore demands a high level of skill, precision, confidence, and leadership capabilities. However, certain personalities and associated attitudes may be harmful to patients and could result in inferior outcomes. The belief that certain personality traits could result in potentially dangerous outcomes was first recognized in aviation, as ‘‘Arrogance got more pilots in trouble than faulty equipment” 1).