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Cortical stimulation

The gold standard for cortical mapping, direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS), has a long history of application in the practice of neurosurgery. Its utility in improving functional outcomes in brain tumor surgery has been demonstrated, but potential side effects remain a significant concern. Specifically, after-discharges, seizures and distant-site stimulation may result in poor functional localization. Although several less invasive alternatives to DECS have been explored, such as fMRI and PET, they are not yet practical enough for widespread routine use.

Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex.

It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.

There is significant variation in how patients respond to cortical electrical stimulation. It has been hypothesized that individual demographic and pathologic factors, such as age, sex, disease duration, and MRI findings, may explain this discrepancy.

Intraoperative cortical stimulation

As the most accurate and reliable method of brain functional area positioning, intraoperative cortical stimulation is able to determine in real time the parts of the brain necessary for such functions as movement, sensation, language, and even memory. A recent meta-analysis suggested that it could also improve the degree of resection of glioma while reducing the incidence of permanent neurological dysfunction 1).

Intraoperative cortical stimulation increased tumor removal while preserving the functional status of the patients but also opens a window to cognitive neuroscience. Observations during such interventions and their correlation with both pre - and postoperative neuropsychological examinations and functional neuroimaging is progressively leading to new insights into the complex functional anatomy of the human brain. Furthermore, it broadens our knowledge on cerebral network reorganization in the presence of disease-with implications for all disciplines of clinical neuroscience 2).

While the fundamental and clinical contribution of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain is now well acknowledged, its advantages and limitations have not been re-evaluated for a long time.

DES is highly sensitive for detecting the cortical and axonal eloquent structures. Moreover, DES also provides a unique opportunity to study brain connectivity, since each area responsive to stimulation is in fact an input gate into a large-scale network rather than an isolated discrete functional site.


DES, however, also has a limitation: its specificity is suboptimal. Indeed, DES may lead to interpretations that a structure is crucial because of the induction of a transient functional response when stimulated, whereas (1) this effect is caused by the backward spreading of the electro-stimulation along the network to an essential area and/or (2) the stimulated region can be functionally compensated owing to long-term brain plasticity mechanisms.

Direct Electrical stimulation is still the gold standard for brain mapping, its combination with new methods such as perioperative neurofunctional imaging and biomathematical modeling is now mandatory, in order to clearly differentiate those networks that are actually indispensable to function from those that can be compensated 3).

see Intraoperative stimulation mapping


Cortical stimulation mapping is used for a number of clinical and therapeutic applications, and remains the preferred method for the pre-surgical mapping of the motor cortex and language areas to prevent unnecessary functional damage.

There are also some clinical applications for cortical stimulation mapping, such as the treatment of epilepsy. Cortical stimulation, either transcranial or by means of electrodes implanted epidurally or subdurally, is used increasingly to treat neuropsychiatric diseases. In cases where transcranial stimulation gives only short-term success, implanted electrodes can yield results that are similar but long-term.

Direct electrical stimulation (DES) at 60 Hz is used to perform real-time functional mapping of the brain during wide-awake neurosurgery. The electrophysiological effects of DES are largely unknown, locally and at a more remote distance. Here, by lowering the DES frequency to 10 Hz and by using a differential recording mode of electro-corticographic (ECoG) signals to improve the focality, we were able to record cortico-cortical evoked potentials easily with standard current amplitude of stimulation (2 mA). DES applied at 10 Hz and differential recording of ECoG could be used to map on-line the connectivity between different sub-cortical and cortical areas with a higher spatial accuracy 4).

Case series

Twenty-one pediatric patients with epilepsy or temporal lobe pathology underwent ECS mapping using visual (n = 21) and auditory (n = 14) tasks. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether the frequency of errors in the stimulated trials was greater than the patient's baseline error rate for each tested modality and subregion.

While the medial superior temporal gyrus was a common language site for both visual and auditory language (43.8% and 46.2% of patients, respectively), other subregions showed significant differences between modalities, and there was significant variability between patients. Visual language was more likely to be located in the anterior temporal lobe than was auditory language. The pediatric patients exhibited fewer parietal language sites and a larger range of sites overall than did adult patients in previously published studies.

There was no single area critical for language in more than 50% of patients tested in either modality for which more than 1 patient was tested (n > 1), affirming that language function is plastic in the setting of dominant-hemisphere pathology. The high rates of language function throughout the left frontal, temporal, and anterior parietal regions with few areas of overlap between modalities suggest that ECS mapping with both visual and auditory testing is necessary to obtain a comprehensive language map prior to epileptic focus or tumor resection 5).


Electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine incidence of ECS-induced ADs and seizures. Multivariable analyses for predictors of AD/seizure occurrence and their thresholds were performed. RESULTS: In 122 patients, the incidence of ADs and seizures was 77% (94/122) and 35% (43/122) respectively. Males (odds ratio [OR] 2.92, 95% CI 1.21-7.38, p=0.02) and MRI-negative patients (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.24-13.7, p=0.03) were found to have higher odds of ECS-induced ADs. A significant trend for decreasing AD thresholds with age was seen (regression co-efficient -0.151, 95% CI -0.267 to -0.035, p=0.011). ECS-induced seizures were more likely in patients with lateralized functional imaging (OR 6.62, 95% CI 1.36-55.56, p=0.036, for positron emission tomography) and presence of ADs (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.12-13.36, p=0.043).

ECS is associated with a high incidence of ADs and seizures. With age, current thresholds decrease and the probability for AD/seizure occurrence increases.

ADs and seizures during ECS brain mapping are potentially hazardous and affect its functional validity. Thus, safer method(s) for brain mapping with improved neurophysiologic validity are desirable 6).


Corley et al, retrospectively analyzed data from 92 patients with medically intractable epilepsy who had extra-operative cortical electrical stimulation. Mapping records were evaluated and information gathered about demographic data, as well as the thresholds of stimulation for motor, sensory, speech, and other responses; typical seizure behavior; and the induction of afterdischarges.

Ninety-two patient cortical stimulation mapping reports were analyzed. The average of the minimum thresholds for motor response was 4.15mA±2.67. The average of the minimum thresholds for sensory response was 3.50mA±2.15. The average of the minimum thresholds for speech response was 4.48mA±2.42. The average of the minimum thresholds for afterdischarge was 4.33mA±2.37. Most striking were the degree of variability and wide range of thresholds seen between patients and within the different regions of the same patient 7).

De Witt Hamer PC, Robles SG, Zwinderman AH, Duffau H, Berger MS. Impact of intraoperative stimulation brain mapping on glioma surgery outcome: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2559–2565. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.38.4818.
Surbeck W, Hildebrandt G, Duffau H. The evolution of brain surgery on awake patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2014 Oct 29. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25352088.
Mandonnet E, Winkler PA, Duffau H. Direct electrical stimulation as an input gate into brain functional networks: principles, advantages and limitations. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010 Feb;152(2):185-93. doi: 10.1007/s00701-009-0469-0. Epub 2009 Jul 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 19639247.
Vincent M, Rossel O, Duffau H, Bonnetblanc F, Guiraud D. A measure of cortico-cortical potentials evoked by 10 Hz direct electrical stimulation of the brain and by means of a differential recording mode of electrocorticographic signals. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug;2016:4543-4546. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7591738. PubMed PMID: 28269287.
Muh CR, Chou ND, Rahimpour S, Komisarow JM, Spears TG, Fuchs HE, Serafini S, Grant GA. Cortical stimulation mapping for localization of visual and auditory language in pediatric epilepsy patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Nov 8:1-10. doi: 10.3171/2019.8.PEDS1922. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31703207.
Aungaroon G, Zea Vera A, Horn PS, Byars AW, Greiner HM, Tenney JR, Arthur TM, Crone NE, Holland KD, Mangano FT, Arya R. After-discharges and seizures during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation functional brain mapping: Incidence, thresholds, and determinants. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017 Jul 18. pii: S1388-2457(17)30493-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2017.06.259. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28778475.
Corley JA, Nazari P, Rossi VJ, Kim NC, Fogg LF, Hoeppner TJ, Stoub TR, Byrne RW. Cortical stimulation parameters for functional mapping. Seizure. 2016 Nov 23;45:36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2016.11.015. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27914225.
cortical_stimulation.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/10 20:27 by administrador