The production is 15-25 mg/day.
It is released in response to stress and low blood glucose.
It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. It also decreases bone formation.
Hydrocortisone (INN, USAN, BAN) is a name for cortisol when it is used as a medication. Hydrocortisone is used to treat people who lack adequate naturally generated cortisol.
Liu et al. retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral 18F positron emission tomography uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal lobe cortex and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive decline seen in Cushing's disease. The findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels 1).