Dermoid cyst

Dermoid cysts (DCs) are unusual benign congenital intracranial tumors that typically arise in the midline and form as a result of abnormal sequestration of ectodermal cells during neural tube formation.

These uni or multilocular cystic tumors lined by squamous epithelium containing skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands) are congenital in origin.

In about 66%, the dermoid cysts are associated with some form of dermal sinus 1).

They are considered benign, and in all reported cases the cysts were well encapsulated on surgical removal. However, a case of squamous cell carcinoma dedifferentiation has been reported, and a few cases of rupture of the cyst leading to aseptic meningitis have been described 2) 3).

The association between a dermoid cyst and arachnoid cyst is extremely rare and when it is present may suggest the existence of a common factor. Abbou et al. presented a unique case of a young girl who developed headache and ataxia as a result of an intracranial infratentorial dermoid cyst and an arachnoid cyst of the cerebellopontine angle. Complete removal of the dermoid cyst and drainage of the cyst leads to a full recovery. Dermoid and arachnoid cyst are two pathologies with a possible common embryogenic factor, early surgery can give a better outcome in the long term 4).

Dermoids are not unique to a single anatomic location but are often isolated to the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

They may occur intracranially or intra-abdominally, oftentimes associated with the ovary.

The intracranial lesions are commonly located in the posterior fossa.

see Cranial dermoid cyst.

see Spinal dermoid cyst

see Nasofrontal dermoid cyst

see Orbital dermoid cyst

see Intracranial dermoid cyst.

In contrast to more common nasal and cervical lesions, the frontotemporal pit is a rarely encountered lesion that is often associated with a dermoid and may track intracranially. Due to delays in diagnosis, the propensity to spread intracranially, and the risk of infection, awareness of these lesions and appropriate diagnosis and management are important. Bliss et al., present 2 cases of frontotemporal pits from a single institution. Epidemiology, presentation, and management recommendations are discussed 5).

Caldarelli M, Massimi L, Kondageski C, Di Rocco C. Intracranial midline dermoid and epidermoid cysts in children. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(5 Suppl Pediatrics):473–80.
OertelJ,PiekJ,Mu ̈llerJU,etal.Posteriorfossasquamouscellcarcinomadue to dedifferentiation of a dermoid cyst in Klippel-Feil syndrome case illustration. J Neurosurg 2002;97:1244
AksoyFG,AksoyOG,GomoriJM.Klippel-Feilsyndromeinassociationwith posterior fossa suboccipital dermoid cyst. Eur Radiol 2001;11:142– 44
Abbou Z, Djennati R, Khalil Z. A rare association between a dermoid cyst and arachnoid cyst of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report. Pan Afr Med J. 2021 Nov 1;40:125. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2021.40.125.32040. PMID: 34909093; PMCID: PMC8641637.
Bliss M, Grant G, Tittler E, Loven T, Yeom KW, Sidell D. Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric frontotemporal pits: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Oct;18(4):471-474. PubMed PMID: 27391653.
  • dermoid_cyst.txt
  • Last modified: 2021/12/16 09:05
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