The process of developing or being developed.

see Developing country.

Human development, in virtually every domain, occurs in stages, marked by certain milestones. Surgery residency can also be viewed in this light. The focus, however, has most often been applied to knowledge and technical skill acquisition, which is viewed as a largely linear process, with challenges that are relatively equal along the way. For example, the novelty and stress of junior residency are balanced by a lower expectation of clinical acumen and responsibility, just as in senior residency, the stress of heavier responsibility and the clinical burden is balanced by an established knowledge base and technical expertise. This model, however, fails to conceptually address the paradoxes we often see in surgical training: the technically gifted surgeon with terrible teaching scores; the seemingly well-adjusted resident who switches specialties; the promising medical student who fails his junior residency.

The coordination of growth during development establishes proportionality within and among the different anatomic structures of organisms. Innate memory of this proportionality is preserved, as shown in the ability of regenerating structures to return to their original size. Although the regulation of this coordination is incompletely understood, mutant analyses of zebrafish with long-finned phenotypes have uncovered important roles for bioelectric signaling in modulating growth and size of the fins and barbs. To date, long-finned mutants identified are caused by hypermorphic mutations, leaving unresolved whether such signaling is required for normal development. We isolated a new zebrafish mutant, schleier, with proportional overgrowth phenotypes caused by a missense mutation and loss of function in the K+-Cl- cotransporter Kcc4a. Creation of dominant negative Kcc4a in wild-type fish leads to loss of growth restriction in fins and barbs, supporting a requirement for Kcc4a in regulation of proportion. Epistasis experiments suggest that Kcc4a and the two-pore potassium channel Kcnk5b both contribute to a common bioelectrical signaling response in the fin. These data suggest that an integrated bioelectric signaling pathway is required for the coordination of size and proportion during development 1).

Lanni JS, Peal D, Ekstrom L, Chen H, Stanclift C, Bowen ME, Mercado A, Gamba G, Kahle KT, Harris MP. Integrated K+ channel and K+Cl- cotransporter function are required for the coordination of size and proportion during development. Dev Biol. 2019 Aug 28. pii: S0012-1606(19)30297-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.08.016. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31472116.
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  • Last modified: 2023/04/05 23:09
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