An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte or a vacuum). The word was coined by the scientist Michael Faraday from the Greek words elektron (meaning amber, from which the word electricity is derived) and hodos, a way.

see Directional electrode.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) uses thermal energy to destroy tissue surrounding an electrode, resulting in coagulative necrosis of tissue from high temperatures 1).

A study demonstrates a time-related degradation in the external layer of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. The analyses of morphological and chemical properties of the implanted devices are relevant for predicting the possibility of hardware's impairment as well as to improve the bio-stability of DBS systems 2).

see Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Placement.

Chiang et al. described the development, validation, and dissemination of flexible, high-resolution, thin-film electrodes for recording neural activity in animals and humans.

They leveraged standard flexible printed-circuit manufacturing processes to build high-resolution TF electrode arrays. They used biocompatible materials to form the substrate (liquid-crystal polymer; LCP), metals (Au, PtIr, and Pd), molding (medical-grade silicone), and 3D-printed housing (nylon). They designed a custom, miniaturized, digitizing headstage to reduce the number of cables required to connect to the acquisition system and reduce the distance between the electrodes and the amplifiers. A custom mechanical system enabled the electrodes and headstages to be pre-assembled prior to sterilization, minimizing the setup time required in the operating room. PtIr electrode coatings lowered impedance and enabled stimulation. High-volume, commercial manufacturing enables cost-effective production of LCP-TF electrodes in large quantities.

The LCP-TF arrays achieve 25× higher electrode density, 20× higher channel count, and 11× reduced stiffness than conventional clinical electrodes. They validated this LCP-TF electrode in multiple human intraoperative recording sessions and have disseminated this technology to >10 research groups. Using these arrays, they observed high-frequency neural activity with sub-millimeter resolution.

This LCP-TF electrodes will advance human neuroscience research and improve clinical care by enabling broad access to transformative, high-resolution electrode arrays 3)

Brace CL. Radiofrequency and microwave ablation of the liver, lung, kidney, and bone: What are the differences? Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology 2009; 38:135-143
Rizzi M, De Benedictis A, Messina G, Cordella R, Marchesi D, Messina R, Penner F, Franzini A, Marras CE. Comparative analysis of explanted DBS electrodes. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26347045.
Chiang CH, Wang C, Barth K, Rahimpour S, Trumpis M, Duraivel S, Rachinskiy I, Dubey A, Wingel KE, Wong M, Witham NS, Odell TG, Woods V, Bent B, Doyle W, Friedman D, Bihler E, Reiche CF, Southwell D, Haglund MM, Friedman AH, Lad S, Devore S, Devinsky O, Solzbacher F, Pesaran B, Cogan G, Viventi J. Flexible, high-resolution thin-film electrodes for human and animal neural research. J Neural Eng. 2021 May 19. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/ac02dc. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34010815.
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  • Last modified: 2021/05/20 15:26
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