A rough calculation of the value, number, quantity, or extent of something.
Khatibi and, Mazidi investigated the effect of an observer's impression of a person in pain and justification of his/her pain on the observer's pain estimation, tendency to help and perceived empathy.
Thirty healthy individuals (half females) read scenarios aimed to manipulate the reader's impression of characters who ultimately were fired from their work (four positive characters and four negative; half females). Then they observed 1-s videos of four levels of pain expression (neutral, mild, moderate, strong) in those characters during an examination. Subsequently, they rated pain estimation, tendency to help and perceived empathy. Afterward, they rated their likability of characters and how just they find the end of story.
People rated pain in positive characters higher than the pain in negative characters. They also expressed more tendency to help and a higher level of perceived empathy toward positive characters than negative characters. For the highest level of pain in positive characters, perceived injustice toward that person was the best predictor of the observer's pain estimation, tendency to help and perceived empathy. For negative characters, dislikeability was the best predictor of tendency to help and perceived empathy. Justification of their pain was a predictor of pain estimation and tendency to help.
Observers used different information to evaluate pain in positive and negative individuals 1).