Imaging technique that uses X rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and fluorescent screen between which a patient is placed. However, modern fluoroscopes couple the screen to an X-ray image intensifier and CCD video camera allowing the images to be recorded and played on a monitor.
The use of X-rays, a form of ionizing radiation, requires the potential risks from a procedure to be carefully balanced with the benefits of the procedure to the patient. While physicians always try to use low dose rates during fluoroscopic procedures, the length of a typical procedure often results in a relatively high absorbed dose to the patient. Recent advances include the digitization of the images captured and flat panel detector systems; modern advances allow further reduction of the radiation dose to the patient.