Gene expression

The process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides in length.

They are considered as the cellular regulators which posttranscriptionally modulate gene expression in diverse biological processes including cell development and immunity.

Epigenetic regulators (histone acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, chromatin-remodeling enzymes, etc) play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression by modifying the local state of chromatin. However, due to their recent discovery, little is yet known about their own regulation

  • gene_expression.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/07/24 09:55
  • by administrador