The etymology of the word is an acronym: GHR (“growth hormone-releasing peptide”) + -lin (“a common hormone suffix”), with an incidental pun on both Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow”) and English growling.

It is often referred to as “the hunger hormone”. Also known as lenomorelin (INN), it is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.

Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy.

When the stomach is empty, ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops.a It acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body for food intake.

The receptor for ghrelin, the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found on the same cells in the brain as the receptor for leptin, the satiety hormone that has opposite effects from ghrelin.

Ghrelin also plays an important role in regulating reward perception in dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (a site that plays a role in processing sexual desire, reward, and reinforcement, and in developing addictions) through its colocalized receptors and interaction with dopamine and acetylcholine.

Ghrelin is encoded by the GHRL gene and is presumably produced from the cleavage of the prepropeptide ghrelin/obestatin. Full-length preproghrelin is homologous to promotilin and both are members of the motilin family.

Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide, has been proven to exert neuroprotection in different kinds of neurological diseases; however, its role and the potential molecular mechanisms in secondary brain injury (SBI) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are still unknown. In this study, we investigate whether treatment with ghrelin may attenuate SBI in a murine ICH model, and if so, whether the neuroprotective effects are due to the inhibition of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and promotion of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidative response element (ARE) signaling pathway. Stereotactically intrastriatal infusion of autologous blood was performed to mimic ICH. Ghrelin was given intraperitoneally immediately following ICH and again 1 h later. Results showed that ghrelin attenuated neurobehavioral deficits, brain edema, hematoma volume, and perihematomal cell death post-ICH. Ghrelin inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequently suppressed the neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by reduced microglia activation, neutrophil infiltration, and pro-inflammatory mediators release after ICH. Additionally, ghrelin alleviated ICH-induced oxidative stress according to the chemiluminescence of luminol and lucigenin, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity assays. These changes were accompanied by upregulation of Nrf2 expression, Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, and enhanced Nrf2 DNA binding activity, as well as by increased expressions of Nrf2 downstream target antioxidative genes, including NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), glutathione cysteine ligase regulatory subunit (GCLC), and glutathione cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM). Together, our data suggested that ghrelin protected against ICH-induced SBI by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and promoting Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway 1).

Continuous infusion of ghrelin increased body mass and food intake, but did not increase muscle mass nor improve muscle function, in a long-term critical illness recovery model. Further studies with pulsatile ghrelin delivery or additional anabolic stimuli may further clarify the utility of ghrelin in survivors of critical illness 2).

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69: Tian C, Ye F, Wang L, Deng Y, Dong Y, Wang X, Xu T, Lei T, Wang X. Nitric oxide inhibits ghrelin-induced cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation in GH3 cells. Endocrine. 2010 Dec;38(3):412-6. doi: 10.1007/s12020-010-9402-9. Epub 2010 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 20972719.

70: Al-Massadi O, Gabellieri E, Trujillo ML, Señaris R, Pagotto U, Pasquali R, Casanueva FF, Seoane LM. Peripheral endocannabinoid system-mediated actions of rimonabant on growth hormone secretion are ghrelin-dependent. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010 Nov;22(11):1127-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2010.02065.x. PubMed PMID: 20807320.

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72: Cheyuo C, Wu R, Zhou M, Jacob A, Coppa G, Wang P. Ghrelin suppresses inflammation and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in focal cerebral ischemia via the vagus nerve. Shock. 2011 Mar;35(3):258-65. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181f48a37. PubMed PMID: 20720512.

73: Nakahara K, Okame R, Katayama T, Miyazato M, Kangawa K, Murakami N. Nutritional and environmental factors affecting plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in rats. J Endocrinol. 2010 Oct;207(1):95-103. doi: 10.1677/JOE-10-0062. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PubMed PMID: 20631048.

74: Kamiji MM, Troncon LE, Antunes-Rodrigues J, Elias LL, de Castro M, Oliveira RB. Ghrelin and PYY(3-36) in gastrectomized and vagotomized patients: relations with appetite, energy intake and resting energy expenditure. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug;64(8):845-52. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.88. Epub 2010 May 19. PubMed PMID: 20485299.

75: Tian C, Ye F, Xu T, Wang S, Wang X, Wang H, Wan F, Lei T. GHRP-6 induces CREB phosphorylation and growth hormone secretion via a protein kinase Csigma-dependent pathway in GH3 cells. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2010 Apr;30(2):183-7. doi: 10.1007/s11596-010-0210-5. Epub 2010 Apr 21. PubMed PMID: 20407870.

76: Erşahin M, Toklu HZ, Erzik C, Cetinel S, Akakin D, Velioğlu-Oğünç A, Tetik S, Ozdemir ZN, Sener G, Yeğen BC. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of ghrelin in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced oxidative brain damage in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2010 Jun;27(6):1143-55. doi: 10.1089/neu.2009.1210. PubMed PMID: 20205513.

77: Xu T, Ye F, Wang B, Tian C, Wang S, Shu K, Guo D, Lei T. Elevation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression in human growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma harboring G protein alpha subunit mutation. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31(1):147-54. PubMed PMID: 20150876.

78: Adachi S, Takiguchi S, Okada K, Yamamoto K, Yamasaki M, Miyata H, Nakajima K, Fujiwara Y, Hosoda H, Kangawa K, Mori M, Doki Y. Effects of ghrelin administration after total gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study. Gastroenterology. 2010 Apr;138(4):1312-20. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.12.058. Epub 2010 Jan 11. PubMed PMID: 20060830.

79: Jaskula M, Wasko R, Komarowska H, Dziubandowska A, Sowinski J. Serum ghrelin levels and disturbances of the lipid profile in patients with acromegaly. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30(2):245-55. PubMed PMID: 19675514.

80: van den Pol AN, Yao Y, Fu LY, Foo K, Huang H, Coppari R, Lowell BB, Broberger C. Neuromedin B and gastrin-releasing peptide excite arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y neurons in a novel transgenic mouse expressing strong Renilla green fluorescent protein in NPY neurons. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 8;29(14):4622-39. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3249-08.2009. PubMed PMID: 19357287; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2745949.

81: Trivin C, Busiah K, Mahlaoui N, Recasens C, Souberbielle JC, Zerah M, Sainte-Rose C, Brauner R. Childhood craniopharyngioma: greater hypothalamic involvement before surgery is associated with higher homeostasis model insulin resistance index. BMC Pediatr. 2009 Apr 2;9:24. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-24. PubMed PMID: 19341477; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2675525.

82: Kudoh K, Shibata C, Funayama Y, Fukushima K, Ueno T, Hayashi K, Inui A, Bowers CY, Sasaki I. The effect of growth hormone releasing peptide-2 on upper gastrointestinal contractile activity and food intake in conscious dogs. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44(4):297-304. doi: 10.1007/s00535-009-0025-y. Epub 2009 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 19271111.

83: Kobashi M, Yanagihara M, Fujita M, Mitoh Y, Matsuo R. Fourth ventricular administration of ghrelin induces relaxation of the proximal stomach in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Feb;296(2):R217-23. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00878.2007. Epub 2008 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 19036830.

84: Yakabi K, Kawashima J, Kato S. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Nov 7;14(41):6334-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 19009648; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2766114.

85: Erlanson-Albertsson C, Lindqvist A. Vagotomy and accompanying pyloroplasty down-regulates ghrelin mRNA but does not affect ghrelin secretion. Regul Pept. 2008 Nov 29;151(1-3):14-8. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2008.08.006. Epub 2008 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 18804492.

86: Taniguchi H, Ariga H, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Mantyh C, Pappas TN, Takahashi T. Endogenous ghrelin and 5-HT regulate interdigestive gastrointestinal contractions in conscious rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Aug;295(2):G403-11. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.90260.2008. Epub 2008 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 18566321.

87: Takeda H, Sadakane C, Hattori T, Katsurada T, Ohkawara T, Nagai K, Asaka M. Rikkunshito, an herbal medicine, suppresses cisplatin-induced anorexia in rats via 5-HT2 receptor antagonism. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jun;134(7):2004-13. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.02.078. Epub 2008 Feb 29. PubMed PMID: 18439428.

88: Wu R, Dong W, Ji Y, Zhou M, Marini CP, Ravikumar TS, Wang P. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin attenuates local and remote organ injury after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. PLoS One. 2008 Apr 23;3(4):e2026. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002026. PubMed PMID: 18431503; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2295264.

89: Kapica M, Zabielska M, Puzio I, Jankowska A, Kato I, Kuwahara A, Zabielski R. Obestatin stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes through a vagal pathway in anaesthetized rats - preliminary results. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;58 Suppl 3:123-30. PubMed PMID: 17901588.

90: Aydin M, Canpolat S, Kuloğlu T, Yasar A, Colakoglu N, Kelestimur H. Effects of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on ghrelin and peptide YY in gastrointestinal system and neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: immunohistochemical studies in male rats. Regul Pept. 2008 Feb 7;146(1-3):197-203. Epub 2007 Sep 14. PubMed PMID: 17936373.

91: Hosoda H, Kangawa K. The autonomic nervous system regulates gastric ghrelin secretion in rats. Regul Pept. 2008 Feb 7;146(1-3):12-8. Epub 2007 Jul 31. PubMed PMID: 17720259.

92: Sato M, Nakahara K, Miyazato M, Kangawa K, Murakami N. Regulation of GH secretagogue receptor gene expression in the rat nodose ganglion. J Endocrinol. 2007 Jul;194(1):41-6. PubMed PMID: 17592019.

93: Seoane LM, Al-Massadi O, Caminos JE, Tovar SA, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF. Sensory stimuli directly acting at the central nervous system regulate gastric ghrelin secretion. an ex vivo organ culture study. Endocrinology. 2007 Aug;148(8):3998-4006. Epub 2007 May 10. PubMed PMID: 17495002.

94: Kawamata T, Inui A, Hosoda H, Kangawa K, Hori T. Perioperative plasma active and total ghrelin levels are reduced in acromegaly when compared with in nonfunctioning pituitary tumours even after normalization of serum GH. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Jul;67(1):140-4. Epub 2007 Apr 27. PubMed PMID: 17466003.

95: Nawrot-Porabka K, Jaworek J, Leja-Szpak A, Szklarczyk J, Macko M, Kot M, Mitis-Musioł M, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW. The effect of luminal ghrelin on pancreatic enzyme secretion in the rat. Regul Pept. 2007 Oct 4;143(1-3):56-63. Epub 2007 Mar 14. PubMed PMID: 17462749.

96: Kapica M, Laubitz D, Puzio I, Jankowska A, Zabielski R. The ghrelin pentapeptide inhibits the secretion of pancreatic juice in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;57(4):691-700. PubMed PMID: 17229991.

97: Murray CD, Booth CE, Bulmer DC, Kamm MA, Emmanuel AV, Winchester WJ. Ghrelin augments afferent response to distension in rat isolated jejunum. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006 Dec;18(12):1112-20. PubMed PMID: 17109695.

98: Dembiński A, Warzecha Z, Ceranowicz P, Cieszkowski J, Pawlik WW, Tomaszewska R, Kuśnierz-Cabala B, Naskalski JW, Kuwahara A, Kato I. Role of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the protective effect of ghrelin in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2006 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):348-56. Epub 2006 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 17084100.

99: Warzecha Z, Dembiński A, Ceranowicz P, Dembiński M, Cieszkowski J, Konturek SJ, Polus A, Pawlik WW, Kuwahara A, Kato I, Konturek PC. Influence of ghrelin on gastric and duodenal growth and expression of digestive enzymes in young mature rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;57(3):425-37. PubMed PMID: 17033095.

100: Nogueiras R, Pfluger P, Tovar S, Arnold M, Mitchell S, Morris A, Perez-Tilve D, Vázquez MJ, Wiedmer P, Castañeda TR, DiMarchi R, Tschöp M, Schurmann A, Joost HG, Williams LM, Langhans W, Diéguez C. Effects of obestatin on energy balance and growth hormone secretion in rodents. Endocrinology. 2007 Jan;148(1):21-6. Epub 2006 Sep 28. PubMed PMID: 17008393.

101: Gaddipati KV, Simonian HP, Kresge KM, Boden GH, Parkman HP. Abnormal ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide responses in gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1339-46. Epub 2006 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 16868831.

102: Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Sliwowski Z, Pajdo R, Drozdowicz D, Kwiecien S, Burnat G, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW. Prostaglandin/cyclooxygenase pathway in ghrelin-induced gastroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):477-87. Epub 2006 Jul 25. PubMed PMID: 16868036.

103: Yakabi K, Ro S, Onouhi T, Tanaka T, Ohno S, Miura S, Johno Y, Takayama K. Histamine mediates the stimulatory action of ghrelin on acid secretion in rat stomach. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1313-21. Epub 2006 Jul 13. PubMed PMID: 16838121.

104: Pekic S, Pesko P, Djurovic M, Miljic D, Doknic M, Glodic J, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF, Popovic V. Plasma ghrelin levels of gastrectomized and vagotomized patients are not affected by glucose administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Jun;64(6):684-8. PubMed PMID: 16712672.

105: Wasko R, Jaskula M, Komarowska H, Zamyslowska H, Sowinski J, Waligorska-Stachura J. Ghrelin concentrations in acromegalic patients in relation to the administered therapy. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):162-8. PubMed PMID: 16670671.

106: Nagamine J, Kawamura T, Tokunaga T, Hume WE, Nagata R, Nakagawa T, Taiji M. Synthesis and pharmacological profile of an orally-active growth hormone secretagogue, SM-130686. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2006 Mar;9(3):187-96. Review. PubMed PMID: 16533152.

107: Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Drozdowicz D, Konturek SJ, Pawlik M, Sliwowski Z, Pawlik WW, Hahn EG. Role of central and peripheral ghrelin in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defence. Inflammopharmacology. 2005;13(1-3):45-62. PubMed PMID: 16259727.

108: Chen CY, Inui A, Asakawa A, Fujino K, Kato I, Chen CC, Ueno N, Fujimiya M. Des-acyl ghrelin acts by CRF type 2 receptors to disrupt fasted stomach motility in conscious rats. Gastroenterology. 2005 Jul;129(1):8-25. PubMed PMID: 16012930.

109: Xu XB, Pang JJ, Cao JM, Ni C, Xu RK, Peng XZ, Yu XX, Guo S, Chen MC, Chen C. GH-releasing peptides improve cardiac dysfunction and cachexia and suppress stress-related hormones and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats with heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Oct;289(4):H1643-51. Epub 2005 Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 15951341.

110: le Roux CW, Neary NM, Halsey TJ, Small CJ, Martinez-Isla AM, Ghatei MA, Theodorou NA, Bloom SR. Ghrelin does not stimulate food intake in patients with surgical procedures involving vagotomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Aug;90(8):4521-4. Epub 2005 May 24. PubMed PMID: 15914532.

111: Abbott CR, Monteiro M, Small CJ, Sajedi A, Smith KL, Parkinson JR, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. The inhibitory effects of peripheral administration of peptide YY(3-36) and glucagon-like peptide-1 on food intake are attenuated by ablation of the vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway. Brain Res. 2005 May 17;1044(1):127-31. Epub 2005 Apr 7. PubMed PMID: 15862798.

112: Koda S, Date Y, Murakami N, Shimbara T, Hanada T, Toshinai K, Niijima A, Furuya M, Inomata N, Osuye K, Nakazato M. The role of the vagal nerve in peripheral PYY3-36-induced feeding reduction in rats. Endocrinology. 2005 May;146(5):2369-75. Epub 2005 Feb 17. PubMed PMID: 15718279.

113: Libè R, Morpurgo PS, Cappiello V, Maffini A, Bondioni S, Locatelli M, Zavanone M, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A. Ghrelin and adiponectin in patients with Cushing's disease before and after successful transsphenoidal surgery. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Jan;62(1):30-6. PubMed PMID: 15638867.

114: Takeno R, Okimura Y, Iguchi G, Kishimoto M, Kudo T, Takahashi K, Takahashi Y, Kaji H, Ohno M, Ikuta H, Kuroda Y, Obara T, Hosoda H, Kangawa K, Chihara K. Intravenous administration of ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion in vagotomized patients as well as normal subjects. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Oct;151(4):447-50. PubMed PMID: 15476443.

115: Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Konturek SJ, Kwiecień S, Drozdowicz D, Bielanski W, Pajdo R, Ptak A, Nikiforuk A, Pawlik WW, Hahn EG. Exogenous and endogenous ghrelin in gastroprotection against stress-induced gastric damage. Regul Pept. 2004 Aug 15;120(1-3):39-51. PubMed PMID: 15177919.

116: Zhang W, Lin TR, Hu Y, Fan Y, Zhao L, Mulholland MW. Activation of c-fos expression in the rat inferior olivary nucleus by ghrelin. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Dec 26;353(3):157-60. PubMed PMID: 14665405.

117: Kim K, Sanno N, Arai K, Takano K, Yasufuku-Takano J, Teramoto A, Shibasaki T. Ghrelin mRNA and GH secretagogue receptor mRNA in human GH-producing pituitary adenomas is affected by mutations in the alpha subunit of G protein. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Nov;59(5):630-6. PubMed PMID: 14616888.

118: Williams DL, Grill HJ, Cummings DE, Kaplan JM. Vagotomy dissociates short- and long-term controls of circulating ghrelin. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5184-7. Epub 2003 Oct 2. PubMed PMID: 14525914.

119: Fujino K, Inui A, Asakawa A, Kihara N, Fujimura M, Fujimiya M. Ghrelin induces fasted motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract in conscious fed rats. J Physiol. 2003 Jul 1;550(Pt 1):227-40. PubMed PMID: 12837928; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2343006.

120: Torsello A, Bresciani E, Rossoni G, Avallone R, Tulipano G, Cocchi D, Bulgarelli I, Deghenghi R, Berti F, Locatelli V. Ghrelin plays a minor role in the physiological control of cardiac function in the rat. Endocrinology. 2003 May;144(5):1787-92. PubMed PMID: 12697684.

121: Sibilia V, Rindi G, Pagani F, Rapetti D, Locatelli V, Torsello A, Campanini N, Deghenghi R, Netti C. Ghrelin protects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats: studies on the mechanisms of action. Endocrinology. 2003 Jan;144(1):353-9. PubMed PMID: 12488364.

122: Barreiro ML, Gaytán F, Caminos JE, Pinilla L, Casanueva FF, Aguilar E, Diéguez C, Tena-Sempere M. Cellular location and hormonal regulation of ghrelin expression in rat testis. Biol Reprod. 2002 Dec;67(6):1768-76. PubMed PMID: 12444052.

123: Tschöp M, Flora DB, Mayer JP, Heiman ML. Hypophysectomy prevents ghrelin-induced adiposity and increases gastric ghrelin secretion in rats. Obes Res. 2002 Oct;10(10):991-9. PubMed PMID: 12376579.

124: Date Y, Murakami N, Toshinai K, Matsukura S, Niijima A, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, Nakazato M. The role of the gastric afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin-induced feeding and growth hormone secretion in rats. Gastroenterology. 2002 Oct;123(4):1120-8. PubMed PMID: 12360474.

125: Lee HM, Wang G, Englander EW, Kojima M, Greeley GH Jr. Ghrelin, a new gastrointestinal endocrine peptide that stimulates insulin secretion: enteric distribution, ontogeny, influence of endocrine, and dietary manipulations. Endocrinology. 2002 Jan;143(1):185-90. PubMed PMID: 11751608.

126: Zhang W, Chen M, Chen X, Segura BJ, Mulholland MW. Inhibition of pancreatic protein secretion by ghrelin in the rat. J Physiol. 2001 Nov 15;537(Pt 1):231-6. PubMed PMID: 11711576; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2278918.

127: Date Y, Nakazato M, Murakami N, Kojima M, Kangawa K, Matsukura S. Ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to stimulate gastric acid secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jan 26;280(3):904-7. PubMed PMID: 11162609.

128: Masuda Y, Tanaka T, Inomata N, Ohnuma N, Tanaka S, Itoh Z, Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K. Ghrelin stimulates gastric acid secretion and motility in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Oct 5;276(3):905-8. PubMed PMID: 11027567.

129: Adams EF, Huang B, Buchfelder M, Howard A, Smith RG, Feighner SD, van der Ploeg LH, Bowers CY, Fahlbusch R. Presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in human pituitary tumors and rat GH3 cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Feb;83(2):638-42. PubMed PMID: 9467586.

Cheng Y, Chen B, Xie W, Chen Z, Yang G, Cai Y, Shang H, Zhao W. Ghrelin attenuates secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and promoting Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Jan 8;79:106180. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.106180. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31926478.
Hill NE, Murphy KG, Saeed S, Phadke R, Chambers D, Wilson DR, Brett SJ, Singer M. Impact of ghrelin on body composition and muscle function in a long-term rodent model of critical illness. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 10;12(8):e0182659. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182659. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28796827.
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