glioma

Glioma

The term “glioma” could technically be used to refer to all tumors of any glial lineage (i.e., from glial cells such as oligodendroglia, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, microglia…), but in its common usage, “glioma” usually refers only to astrocytic tumors.

Gliomas comprise a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms.

The body of glioma-related literature has grown significantly over the past 25 years. Despite this growth in the amount of published research, gliomas remain one of the most intransigent cancers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the landscape of glioma-related research over the past 25 years using machine learning and text analysis.

In April 2019, Feng et al. downloaded glioma-related publications indexed in PubMed between 1994 and 2018. They used Python to extract the title, publication date, MeSH terms, and abstract from the metadata of each publication for bibliometric assessment. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) was applied to the abstracts to identify publications' research topics with greater specificity.

They identified and analyzed a total of 52,625 publications. They found that research on prognosis and the treatment of glioblastoma increased the most in terms of volume and rate of publications over the past 25 years. However, publications regarding clinical trials accounted for <5% of all publications considered in this study. The current research landscape covers clinical, pre-clinical, biological, and technical aspects of glioblastoma; at present, researchers appear to be less concerned with glioblastoma's psychological effects or patients' end-of-life care.

Publication of glioma-related research has expanded rapidly over the past 25 years. Common topics include the disease's molecular background, patients' survival, and treatment outcomes; more research needs to be done on the psychological aspects of glioblastoma and end-of-life care 1)


Studies on gliomas suggested that the microenvironment of human gliomas contains both glioma stem cells (GSCs) and glioma associated (GA)-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; (GA-MSCs). Also, studies have suggested that nano- sized vesicles, termed exosomes, have been recently observed to contribute towards intercellular communication within the tumor niche 2).

Gliomas are the second most common primary brain tumors, with an incidence of 4–5/100 000 individuals. Gliomas are the second leading cause of cancer mortality in adults under the age of 35, the fourth leading cause in those under the age of 54, and result in death in approximately 13 770 individuals per year in the United States.

Approximately 89,000 new primary brain tumors are diagnosed in the United States each year, for which 27% are gliomas and 32.8% are malignant gliomas 3).

The are more frequent among males 4).

see Glioma Classification.

see Glioma Biomarker.

see Gliomagenesis

see Glioma spread

Many gliomas become symptomatic with either seizures or focal neurological deficits and are subsequently detected via MRI.

Seizures are common in patients with gliomas; however, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in gliomas have not been fully understood. A study hypothesized that analyzing quantified metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) might provide novel insights to better understand the epileptogenesis in gliomas, and specific metabolites might be indicators of preoperative seizures in gliomas. Nakae et al. retrospectively investigated patient information (gender, age at diagnosis of tumor, their survival time) and tumor information (location, histology, genetic features, and metabolites according to MRS) in patients with gliomas. The data were correlated with the incidence of seizure and analyzed statistically. Of 146 adult supratentorial gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant tumors significantly indicated a higher incidence of preoperative seizures than IDH wild-type gliomas. However, the MRS study indicated that glutamate concentration in IDH wild-type gliomas was higher than that in IDH mutant gliomas. Glutamate was not associated with a high frequency of preoperative seizures in patients with gliomas. Instead, increased total N-Acetylaspartic acid (tNAA) was significantly associated with them. Moreover, the multivariable analysis indicated that an increased level of tNAA was an independent predictor of preoperative seizures. According to MRS analysis, tNAA, rather than glutamate, might be useful to detect preoperative seizures in a patient with supratentorial gliomas 5).

see Glioma Diagnosis.

see MRI for glioma.

see Glioma treatment.

see Glioma outcome.

see Glioma Books.

Glioma case series.

Glioma database


1)
Feng C, Wu Y, Gao L, Guo X, Wang Z, Xing B. Publication Landscape Analysis on Gliomas: How Much Has Been Done in the Past 25 Years? Front Oncol. 2020 Jan 17;9:1463. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.01463. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 32038995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6988829.
2)
Xu H, Zhang K, Zong H, Shang M, Li K, He X. Exosomal communication in glioma - a review. J BUON. 2016 Nov-Dec;21(6):1368-1373. PubMed PMID: 28039693.
3)
Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Fulop J, Liu M, Blanda R, Kromer C, Wolinsky Y, Kruchko C, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2008-2012. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Oct;17 Suppl 4:iv1-iv62. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nov189. Epub 2015 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 26511214; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4623240.
4)
Ohgaki H and Kleihues P (2005) Epidemiology and etiology of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 109: 93–108.
5)
Nakae S, Kumon M, Murayama K, Ohba S, Sasaki H, Inamasu J, Kuwahara K, Yamada S, Abe M, Hirose Y. Association of preoperative seizures with tumor metabolites quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in gliomas. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7927. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86487-6. PMID: 33846339.
  • glioma.txt
  • Last modified: 2021/04/13 18:02
  • by administrador