Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in the elderly with enlarged ventricles and normal or slightly elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure, clinically characterized by an insidious onset and gradual progression of impairments of gait, balance, cognition, with urinary incontinence 1).
It is predominantly a disease of the elderly. By its nature, many of those who present to clinic are in advanced old age with multiple comorbidities. Majority of patients treated are younger than 80 years old.
It occurs most frequently in the 70s, gait impairment and cognitive decline are the most frequent initial symptoms in men and women, respectively, and hypertension and diabetes are the most frequent comorbidities in men and women, respectively 3).
In people over 65 years old, pooled prevalence obtained from specific population studies was 1.3%, almost 50-fold higher than that inferred from door-to-door surveys of dementia or Parkinsonism. Prevalence may be even higher in assisted-living and extended-care residents, with up to 11.6% of patients fulfilling the criteria for suspected iNPH and 2.0% of patients showing permanent improvement after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. The only prospective population-based survey that reported iNPH incidence estimated 1.20 cases/1000 inhabitants/year, 15-fold higher than estimates obtained from studies based on hospital catchment areas. The incidence of shunt surgery for iNPH and SRiNPH obtained from incident cases of hospital catchment areas appears to be fewer than two cases and one case/100,000 inhabitants/year, respectively. Unfortunately, there is no population-based study reporting the real values for these two parameters.
The prevalence of iNPH, in Japan among people older than 65, the prevalence is between 0.5% and 2.9% 4) and the syndrome is both underdiagnosed and undertreated.
It is recommended that INPH be classified into probable, possible, and unlikely categories. It is hope that these criteria will be widely applied in clinical practice and will promote greater consistency in patient selection in future clinical investigations involving INPH 5).
All patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) who underwent shunting in Sweden in 2008-2010 were compared to age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Inclusion criteria were age 60-85 years and no dementia. The 10 most important vascular risk factor (VRFs) and cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease were prospectively assessed using blood samples, clinical examinations, and standardized questionnaires. Assessed VRFs were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, psychosocial factors, smoking habits, diet, alcohol intake, cardiac disease, and physical activity.
In total, 176 patients with INPH and 368 controls participated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that hyperlipidemia (odds ratio [OR] 2.380; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.434-3.950), diabetes (OR 2.169; 95% CI 1.195-3.938), obesity (OR 5.428; 95% CI 2.502-11.772), and psychosocial factors (OR 5.343; 95% CI 3.219-8.868) were independently associated with INPH. Hypertension, physical inactivity, and cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease were also overrepresented in INPH. Moderate alcohol intake and physical activity were overrepresented among the controls. The population-attributable risk percentage was 24%.
The findings confirm that patients with INPH have more VRFs and lack the protective factors present in the general population. Almost 25% of cases of INPH may be explained by VRFs. This suggests that INPH may be a subtype of vascular dementia. Targeted interventions against modifiable VRFs are likely to have beneficial effects on INPH 6).
Kaolin was injected bilaterally into the subarachnoid space overlying the cranial convexities in 20 adult rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained by using an 11.7 T scanner at 14, 60, 90, and 120 days after kaolin injection. Locomotor, gait, and cognitive evaluations were performed independently. Kaolin distribution and the associated inflammatory and fibrotic responses were histologically analyzed.
Evans index of ventriculomegaly showed significant progressive growth in ventricular size over all time points examined. The greatest enlargement occurred within the first 2 months. Evans index also correlated with the extent of kaolin distribution by MRI and by pathological examination at all time points. First gait changes occurred at 69 days, anxiety at 80, cognitive impairment at 81, and locomotor difficulties after 120 days. Only locomotor deterioration was associated with Evans index or the radiological evaluation of kaolin extension. Inflammatory/fibrotic response was histologically confirmed over the cranial convexities in all rats, and its extension was associated with ventricular size and with the rate of ventricular enlargement.
Kaolin injected into the subarachnoid space over the cerebral hemispheres of adult rats produces an inflammatory/fibrotic response leading in a slow-onset communicating hydrocephalus that is initially asymptomatic. Increased ventricular size eventually leads to gait, memory, and locomotor impairment closely resembling the course of human adult chronic hydrocephalus 7).