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intrathecal_drug_delivery_device

Intrathecal Drug Delivery Device

Intrathecal drug delivery devices (IDDDs) are a mainstay in the treatment of spasticity and refractory pain.

Complications

Unclassified

Deer T, Kim P, Pope JE, Hayek S, McDowell G, Mekhail N, Diwan S, Saulino M, Moeschler S, Schultz D, Gritsenko K, Prager J, Peterson EA, Staats P, Poree L, Fishman MA, Vallejo R, Calodney A, Slavin K, de Leon Cassadala O, Levy R, Buvanendran A, Sitzman BT, Sayed D, Ferrante FM, Kloth D, Gilligan CJ, Kapural L, Kloster DR, Leong M, Rosenow JM, Lamer TJ, Stearns L. Guest Editorial: Physician Guidance on the Use of Off-Labeled Drugs in Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Chronic Pain. Neuromodulation. 2019 Apr 30. doi: 10.1111/ner.12961. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31039292.

2: Kim AJ, Basu S, Glass C, Ross EL, Agar N, He Q, Calligaris D. Unique Intradural Inflammatory Mass Containing Precipitated Morphine: Confirmatory Analysis by LESA-MS and MALDI-MS. Pain Pract. 2018 Sep;18(7):889-894. doi: 10.1111/papr.12688. Epub 2018 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 29480977; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6109606.

3: Devine OP, Harborne AC, Lo WB, Price R. Colonic perforation by an intrathecal baclofen pump catheter causing delayed Escherichia coli meningitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Dec 20;2017. pii: bcr-2017-222539. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2017-222539. PubMed PMID: 29269368.

4: Nagel SJ, Reddy CG, Frizon LA, Holland MT, Machado AG, Gillies GT, Howard MA 3rd. Intrathecal Therapeutics: Device Design, Access Methods, and Complication Mitigation. Neuromodulation. 2018 Oct;21(7):625-640. doi: 10.1111/ner.12693. Epub 2017 Sep 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 28961351.

5: Delhaas EM, Harhangi BS, Frankema SPG, Huygen FJPM, van der Lugt A. Plain radiography in patients treated with intrathecal drug delivery using an implantable pump device. Insights Imaging. 2017 Oct;8(5):499-511. doi: 10.1007/s13244-017-0568-z. Epub 2017 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 28840489; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5621993.

6: Warner NS, Bendel MA, Warner MA, Strand JJ, Gazelka HM, Hoelzer BC, Mauck WD, Lamer TJ, Kor DJ, Moeschler SM. Bleeding Complications in Patients Undergoing Intrathecal Drug Delivery System Implantation. Pain Med. 2017 Dec 1;18(12):2422-2427. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnw363. PubMed PMID: 28340041.

7: Cohen-Pfeffer JL, Gururangan S, Lester T, Lim DA, Shaywitz AJ, Westphal M, Slavc I. Intracerebroventricular Delivery as a Safe, Long-Term Route of Drug Administration. Pediatr Neurol. 2017 Feb;67:23-35. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.10.022. Epub 2016 Nov 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 28089765.

8: Deer TR, Pope JE, Hayek SM, Lamer TJ, Veizi IE, Erdek M, Wallace MS, Grider JS, Levy RM, Prager J, Rosen SM, Saulino M, Yaksh TL, De Andrés JA, Abejon Gonzalez D, Vesper J, Schu S, Simpson B, Mekhail N. The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC): Recommendations for Intrathecal Drug Delivery: Guidance for Improving Safety and Mitigating Risks. Neuromodulation. 2017 Feb;20(2):155-176. doi: 10.1111/ner.12579. Epub 2017 Jan 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 28042914.

9: Prusik J, Argoff C, Peng S, Pilitsis JG. Use of Low Dose Ziconotide as First-Line Intrathecal Monotherapy. Neuromodulation. 2017 Jun;20(4):386-391. doi: 10.1111/ner.12486. Epub 2016 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 27492135.

10: Morgalla M, Fortunato M, Azam A, Tatagiba M, Lepski G. High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Assessing Complications Related to Intrathecal Drug Delivery. Pain Physician. 2016 Jul;19(5):E775-80. PubMed PMID: 27389121.

11: Han JL, Loriaux DB, Tybout C, Kinon MD, Rahimpour S, Runyon SL, Hopkins TJ, Boortz-Marx RL, Lad SP. Thoracic Nerve Root Entrapment by Intrathecal Catheter Coiling: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Pain Physician. 2016 Mar;19(3):E499-504. Review. PubMed PMID: 27008308.

12: Veizi E, Tornero-Bold M, Hayek SM. Resolution of Intrathecal Hydromorphone or Morphine-induced Peripheral Edema by Opioid Rotation to Fentanyl: A Case Series. Pain Pract. 2016 Jul;16(6):E94-8. doi: 10.1111/papr.12443. Epub 2016 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 26990069.

13: Hayek SM, Sweet JA, Miller JP, Sayegh RR. Successful Management of Corneal Neuropathic Pain with Intrathecal Targeted Drug Delivery. Pain Med. 2016 Jul;17(7):1302-7. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnv058. Epub 2015 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 26814286.

14: Hayek SM, Veizi E, Hanes M. Intrathecal Hydromorphone and Bupivacaine Combination Therapy for Post-Laminectomy Syndrome Optimized with Patient-Activated Bolus Device. Pain Med. 2016 Mar;17(3):561-571. Epub 2015 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 26814257.

15: Devine O, Harborne A, Lo WB, Weinberg D, Ciras M, Price R. Unusual placement of intrathecal baclofen pumps: report of two cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2016 Jan;158(1):167-70. doi: 10.1007/s00701-015-2636-9. Epub 2015 Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 26592253; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4684582.

16: Ingale H, Ughratdar I, Muquit S, Moussa AA, Vloeberghs MH. Selective dorsal rhizotomy as an alternative to intrathecal baclofen pump replacement in GMFCS grades 4 and 5 children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Feb;32(2):321-5. doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2950-9. Epub 2015 Nov 9. PubMed PMID: 26552383.

17: Kratzsch T, Stienen MN, Reck T, Hildebrandt G, Hoederath P. Catheter-tip Granulomas Associated with Intrathecal Drug Delivery–A Two-Center Experience Identifying 13 Cases. Pain Physician. 2015 Sep-Oct;18(5):E831-40. PubMed PMID: 26431137.

18: Stetkarova I, Brabec K, Vasko P, Mencl L. Intrathecal Baclofen in Spinal Spasticity: Frequency and Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome. Pain Physician. 2015 Jul-Aug;18(4):E633-41. PubMed PMID: 26218954.

19: Muenzer J, Hendriksz CJ, Fan Z, Vijayaraghavan S, Perry V, Santra S, Solanki GA, Mascelli MA, Pan L, Wang N, Sciarappa K, Barbier AJ. A phase I/II study of intrathecal idursulfase-IT in children with severe mucopolysaccharidosis II. Genet Med. 2016 Jan;18(1):73-81. doi: 10.1038/gim.2015.36. Epub 2015 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 25834948.

20: Etminan N, Macdonald RL, Davis C, Burton K, Steiger HJ, Hänggi D. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2015;120:281-6. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-04981-6_47. Review. PubMed PMID: 25366637.

21: Gulati A, Shah R, Puttanniah V, Hung JC, Malhotra V. A retrospective review and treatment paradigm of interventional therapies for patients suffering from intractable thoracic chest wall pain in the oncologic population. Pain Med. 2015 Apr;16(4):802-10. doi: 10.1111/pme.12558. Epub 2014 Sep 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 25236160.

22: Waqar M, Ellenbogen JR, Kumar R, Sneade C, Zebian B, Williams D, Pettorini BL. Indwelling intrathecal catheter with subcutaneous abdominal reservoir: a viable baclofen delivery system in severely cachectic patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Oct;14(4):409-13. doi: 10.3171/2014.6.PEDS13686. Epub 2014 Aug 1. PubMed PMID: 25084089.

23: Ghobrial GM, Thakkar V, Singhal S, Oppenlander ME, Maulucci CM, Harrop JS, Jallo J, Prasad S, Saulino M, Sharan AD. Efficacy of intraoperative vancomycin powder use in intrathecal baclofen pump implantation procedures: single institutional series in a high risk population. J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Oct;21(10):1786-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 Jun 14. PubMed PMID: 24938386.

24: Bentley JN, Viswanathan A, Rosenberg WS, Patil PG. Treatment of medically refractory cancer pain with a combination of intrathecal neuromodulation and neurosurgical ablation: case series and literature review. Pain Med. 2014 Sep;15(9):1488-95. doi: 10.1111/pme.12481. Epub 2014 Jun 14. Review. PubMed PMID: 24931480.

25: Margetis K, Korfias SI, Gatzonis S, Boutos N, Stranjalis G, Boviatsis E, Sakas DE. Intrathecal baclofen associated with improvement of consciousness disorders in spasticity patients. Neuromodulation. 2014 Oct;17(7):699-704: discussion 704. doi: 10.1111/ner.12147. Epub 2013 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 24350688.

26: Taira T, Ueta T, Katayama Y, Kimizuka M, Nemoto A, Mizusawa H, Liu M, Koito M, Hiro Y, Tanabe H. Rate of complications among the recipients of intrathecal baclofen pump in Japan: a multicenter study. Neuromodulation. 2013 May-Jun;16(3):266-72; discussion 272. doi: 10.1111/ner.12010. Epub 2012 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 23240625.

27: Mascitelli J, De Los Reyes K, Steinberger J, Zou H. Lack of functionality and need for revision of an Ommaya reservoir placed into a cavum septum pellucidum. J Neurosurg. 2013 Mar;118(3):502-4. doi: 10.3171/2012.10.JNS12818. Epub 2012 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 23121429.

28: Yowtak J, Cato K, Williams H, Salazar P, Macomson S, Sekul E, Vender J. Indium 111 diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid scintigraphy in the identification and management of intrathecal pump malfunction. PM R. 2013 Jan;5(1):32-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.07.010. Epub 2012 Sep 12. PubMed PMID: 22981006.

29: Varhabhatla NC, Zuo Z. Rising complication rates after intrathecal catheter and pump placement in the pediatric population: analysis of national data between 1997 and 2006. Pain Physician. 2012 Jan-Feb;15(1):65-74. PubMed PMID: 22270739.

30: Magro E, Remy-Neris O, Seizeur R, Allano V, Quinio B, Dam-Hieu P. Bilateral subdural hematoma following implantation of intrathecal drug delivery device. Neuromodulation. 2011 Mar-Apr;14(2):179-81; discussion 182. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1403.2011.00335.x. Epub 2011 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 21992208.

31: Medel R, Pouratian N, Elias WJ. Catheter-tip mass mimicking a spinal epidural hematoma. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Jan;12(1):66-71. doi: 10.3171/2009.7.SPINE08888. PubMed PMID: 20043767.

32: Peerdeman SM, de Groot V, Feller RE. In situ treatment of an infected intrathecal baclofen pump implant with gentamicin-impregnated collagen fleece. J Neurosurg. 2010 Jun;112(6):1308-10. doi: 10.3171/2009.8.JNS081692. PubMed PMID: 19731988.

33: Miller JP, Acar F, Burchiel KJ. Significant reduction in stereotactic and functional neurosurgical hardware infection after local neomycin/polymyxin application. J Neurosurg. 2009 Feb;110(2):247-50. PubMed PMID: 19263587.

34: Reif-Gintl T, Ilias W. [Palliative therapy in bronchial carcinoma–implanted delivery system and ports]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158(23-24):729-34. doi: 10.1007/s10354-008-0625-9. German. PubMed PMID: 19165455.

35: Omeis I, Chen W, Jhanwar-Uniyal M, Rozental R, Murali R, Abrahams JM. Prevention of cerebral vasospasm by local delivery of cromakalim with a biodegradable controlled-release system in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2009 May;110(5):1015-20. doi: 10.3171/2008.8.JNS08202. PubMed PMID: 19119878.

36: Aliabadi H, Osenbach RK. Intrathecal Drug Delivery Device Infection and Meningitis due to Mycobacterium Fortuitum: A Case Report. Neuromodulation. 2008 Oct;11(4):311-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1403.2008.00181.x. PubMed PMID: 22151146.

37: Taira T. [Chronic intrathecal drug administration for the control of intractable pain]. Brain Nerve. 2008 May;60(5):509-17. Review. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 18516973.

38: Flückiger B, Knecht H, Grossmann S, Felleiter P. Device-related complications of long-term intrathecal drug therapy via implanted pumps. Spinal Cord. 2008 Sep;46(9):639-43. doi: 10.1038/sc.2008.24. Epub 2008 Mar 11. PubMed PMID: 18332884.

39: Vanhauwaert DJ, Kalala JP, Baert E, Hallaert G, Crombez E, Caemaert J, Van Roost D. Migration of pump for intrathecal drug delivery into the peritoneal cavity. Case report. Surg Neurol. 2009 May;71(5):610-2; discussion 612. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2007.10.035. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 18291481.

40: Belverud S, Mogilner A, Schulder M. Intrathecal pumps. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Jan;5(1):114-22. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2007.10.070. Review. PubMed PMID: 18164490; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5084133.

41: Greenfield JP, Schwartz TH. Catheter placement for Ommaya reservoirs with frameless surgical navigation: technical note. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2008;86(2):101-5. Epub 2007 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 18073523.

42: Rainov NG, Heidecke V. Management of chronic back and leg pain by intrathecal drug delivery. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97(Pt 1):49-56. Review. PubMed PMID: 17691356.

43: Fulkerson DH, Boaz JC, Luerssen TG. Interaction of ventriculoperitoneal shunt and baclofen pump. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007 Jul;23(7):733-8. Epub 2007 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 17364210.

44: Miele VJ, Price K, Bloomfield S, Hogg J, Bailes J. Intrathecal morphine therapy related granulomas: two case reports. W V Med J. 2006 Sep-Oct;102(5):16-8. PubMed PMID: 17285949.

45: McCall TD, MacDonald JD. Cervical catheter tip placement for intrathecal baclofen administration. Neurosurgery. 2006 Sep;59(3):634-40; discussion 634-40. PubMed PMID: 16955045.

46: Lehmberg J, Scheiwe C, Spreer J, van Velthoven V. Late bacterial granuloma at an intrathecal drug delivery catheter. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006 Aug;148(8):899-901; discussion 901. Epub 2006 Jun 23. PubMed PMID: 16791432.

47: Douglas AF, Weiner HL, Schwartz DR. Prolonged intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome. Case report and discussion of current therapeutic management. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jun;102(6):1133-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 16028775.

48: Lew SM, Psaty EL, Abbott R. An unusual cause of overdose after baclofen pump implantation: case report. Neurosurgery. 2005 Mar;56(3):E624; discussion E624. PubMed PMID: 15730591.

49: Dario A, Scamoni C, Picano M, Fortini G, Cuffari S, Tomei G. The infection risk of intrathecal drug infusion pumps after multiple refill procedures. Neuromodulation. 2005 Jan;8(1):36-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1094-7159.2005.05218.x. PubMed PMID: 22151381.

50: Follett KA, Boortz-Marx RL, Drake JM, DuPen S, Schneider SJ, Turner MS, Coffey RJ. Prevention and management of intrathecal drug delivery and spinal cord stimulation system infections. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun;100(6):1582-94. Review. PubMed PMID: 15166581.

51: Hunter TB, Yoshino MT, Dzioba RB, Light RA, Berger WG. Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine. Radiographics. 2004 Jan-Feb;24(1):257-85. Review. Erratum in: Radiographics. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2):418. PubMed PMID: 14730051.

52: Penn RD. Intrathecal medication delivery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2003 Jul;14(3):381-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 14567139.

53: Simpson RK Jr. Mechanisms of action of intrathecal medications. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2003 Jul;14(3):353-64. Review. PubMed PMID: 14567137.

54: Turner MS. Intrathecal drug delivery 2002. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2003;87:29-35. Review. PubMed PMID: 14518519.

55: Bergenheim AT, Wendelius M, Shahidi S, Larsson E. Spasticity in a child with myelomeningocele treated with continuous intrathecal baclofen. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003 Oct;39(4):218-21. PubMed PMID: 12944705.

56: Dickerman RD, Stevens QE, Schneider SJ. The role of surgical placement and pump orientation in intrathecal pump system failure: a technical report. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003 Feb;38(2):107-9. PubMed PMID: 12566846.

57: Kumar K, Hunter G, Demeria DD. Treatment of chronic pain by using intrathecal drug therapy compared with conventional pain therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis. J Neurosurg. 2002 Oct;97(4):803-10. PubMed PMID: 12405366.

58: Alden TD, Lytle RA, Park TS, Noetzel MJ, Ojemann JG. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal: a case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2002 Oct;18(9-10):522-5. Epub 2002 Jul 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 12382179.

59: Dickerman RD, Schneider SJ. Recurrent intrathecal baclofen pump catheter leakage: A surgical observation with recommendations. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Jun;37(6):E17. PubMed PMID: 12037778.

60: Lordon SP. Interventional approach to cancer pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2002 Jun;6(3):202-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 12003691.

61: Kopell BH, Sala D, Doyle WK, Feldman DS, Wisoff JH, Weiner HL. Subfascial implantation of intrathecal baclofen pumps in children: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2001 Sep;49(3):753-6; discussion 756-7. PubMed PMID: 11523691.

62: Kumar K, Kelly M, Pirlot T. Continuous intrathecal morphine treatment for chronic pain of nonmalignant etiology: long-term benefits and efficacy. Surg Neurol. 2001 Feb;55(2):79-86; discussion 86-8. PubMed PMID: 11301086.

63: Al-Anazi A, Bernstein M. Modified stereotactic insertion of the Ommaya reservoir. Technical note. J Neurosurg. 2000 Jun;92(6):1050-2. PubMed PMID: 10839270.

64: Van Schaeybroeck P, Nuttin B, Lagae L, Schrijvers E, Borghgraef C, Feys P. Intrathecal baclofen for intractable cerebral spasticity: a prospective placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Neurosurgery. 2000 Mar;46(3):603-9; discussion 609-12. PubMed PMID: 10719857.

65: Hassenbusch SJ. Cost modeling for alternate routes of administration of opioids for cancer pain. Oncology (Williston Park). 1999 May;13(5 Suppl 2):63-7. PubMed PMID: 10356701.

66: Naumann C, Erdine S, Koulousakis A, Van Buyten JP, Schuchard M. Drug adverse events and system complications of intrathecal opioid delivery for pain: origins, detection, manifestations, and management. Neuromodulation. 1999 Apr;2(2):92-107. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1403.1999.00092.x. PubMed PMID: 22151113.

67: Anderson VC, Burchiel KJ. A prospective study of long-term intrathecal morphine in the management of chronic nonmalignant pain. Neurosurgery. 1999 Feb;44(2):289-300; discussion 300-1. PubMed PMID: 9932882.

68: Gianino JM, York MM, Paice JA, Shott S. Quality of life: effect of reduced spasticity from intrathecal baclofen. J Neurosci Nurs. 1998 Feb;30(1):47-54. PubMed PMID: 9604822.

69: Cabbell KL, Taren JA, Sagher O. Spinal cord compression by catheter granulomas in high-dose intrathecal morphine therapy: case report. Neurosurgery. 1998 May;42(5):1176-80; discussion 1180-1. Review. PubMed PMID: 9588567.

70: Kawashima A, Kasuya H, Shiokawa K, Miyajima M, Izawa M, Takakura K. [Efficacy of nicardipine prolonged-release pellet on cerebral vasospasm in dogs]. No Shinkei Geka. 1998 Jan;26(1):37-43. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 9488990.

71: Angel IF, Gould HJ Jr, Carey ME. Intrathecal morphine pump as a treatment option in chronic pain of nonmalignant origin. Surg Neurol. 1998 Jan;49(1):92-8; discussion 98-9. PubMed PMID: 9428901.

72: Penn RD, Kroin JS, York MM, Cedarbaum JM. Intrathecal ciliary neurotrophic factor delivery for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (phase I trial). Neurosurgery. 1997 Jan;40(1):94-9; discussion 99-100. PubMed PMID: 8971830.

73: Penn RD, York MM, Paice JA. Catheter systems for intrathecal drug delivery. J Neurosurg. 1995 Aug;83(2):215-7. PubMed PMID: 7616263.

74: Estebe JP, Le Corre P, Mallédant Y, Chevanne F, Leverge R. Prolongation of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine-loaded (DL-lactide) microspheres. Anesth Analg. 1995 Jul;81(1):99-103. PubMed PMID: 7598291.

75: Pratt K, Toombs JP, Widmer WR, Borgens RB. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of 4-aminopyridine following intravenous injection and metered intrathecal delivery in canines. J Neurotrauma. 1995 Feb;12(1):23-39. PubMed PMID: 7783231.

76: Gianino J. Intrathecal baclofen for spinal spasticity: implications for nursing practice. J Neurosci Nurs. 1993 Aug;25(4):254-64. Review. PubMed PMID: 8228399.

77: Schultheiss R, Schramm J, Neidhardt J. Dose changes in long- and medium-term intrathecal morphine therapy of cancer pain. Neurosurgery. 1992 Oct;31(4):664-9; discussion 669-70. PubMed PMID: 1383867.

78: Penn RD. Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity of spinal origin: seven years of experience. J Neurosurg. 1992 Aug;77(2):236-40. PubMed PMID: 1625011.

79: Erickson DL, Lo J, Michaelson M. Control of intractable spasticity with intrathecal morphine sulfate. Neurosurgery. 1989 Feb;24(2):236-8. PubMed PMID: 2918974.

80: Siegfried J. Electrostimulation and neurosurgical measures in cancer pain. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1988;108:28-32. Review. PubMed PMID: 3051206.

81: Brazenor GA. Long term intrathecal administration of morphine: a comparison of bolus injection via reservoir with continuous infusion by implanted pump. Neurosurgery. 1987 Oct;21(4):484-91. PubMed PMID: 3683781.

intrathecal_drug_delivery_device.txt · Last modified: 2019/05/01 19:15 by administrador