The approval of ipilimumab-the first in class immune checkpoint inhibitor-in 2011 serves as a landmark period of time in the resurgence of immunotherapy for cancer.


In a retrospective cohort of consecutive MM patients (pts) with BMs, all systematically upfront treated by Gamma-Knife (GK) at first BM and retreated in case of new BMs, from 2010 to 2015 at the time when ipilimumab BRAF ± MEK inhibitors and anti-PD-1 were introduced in practice. Survival after 1st GK (OSGK1) according to prognostic factors and treatment.

Among 179 consecutive pts treated by GK, 109 received IT and/or TT after the 1st GK. Median OSGK1 was 10.95 months and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 49.5% and 27.4%, respectively, versus a median overall survival (OS) of 2.29 months (p < .001) in those who did not receive IT or TT. In pts who initially had a single BM, median OS and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 14.46 months, 66.7% and 43.4%, respectively; in pts with 2-3 BMs: 8.85 months, 46.4% and 31%, respectively; in pts with >3 BMs: 7.25 months, 37.2% and 11.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis for OSGK1 confirmed that IT and TT were significantly and highly protective. Best OSGK1 was observed in BRAF-wild-type pts receiving anti-PD-1 or in BRAF-mutated pts receiving BRAF-inhibitors and anti-PD-1 (12.26 and 14.82 months, respectively).

In real-life MM pts with BMs, a strategy aiming at controlling BM with GK together with TT and/or TT seems to achieve unprecedented survival rates 1).

A 57-year-old man presented with visual deterioration and bitemporal hemianopsia. MRI of the brain demonstrated a sellar mass suspected to be pituitary macroadenoma with a displacement of the stalk and optic nerve impingement. The patient underwent stereotactic endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of the mass. Postoperative MRI demonstrated gross total resection. Pathology revealed a sparsely granulated corticotroph adenoma with malignant transformation. Immunohistochemistry showed a loss of expression of MLH1 and PMS2 in the tumor cells. Proton therapy was recommended given an elevated Ki67 index and p53 positivity. Before radiotherapy, there was no radiographic evidence of residual tumor. Temozolomide therapy was initiated after surveillance MRI showed recurrence at 16 months postoperatively. However, MRI demonstrated marked progression after 3 cycles. Next-generation sequencing using the MSK-IMPACT platform identified somatic mutations in MLH1 Y548lfs*9 and TP53 R337C. Immunotherapy with ipilimumab/nivolumab was initiated, and MRI demonstrated no residual tumor burden 34 months postoperatively.

APA is a tumor with frequent recurrence and a short median expected length of survival. Shah et al. demonstrated the utility of immunotherapy in a single case report of APA, with complete resolution of recurrent APA and improved survival compared with a life expectancy 2).

Gaudy-Marqueste C, Dussouil AS, Carron R, Troin L, Malissen N, Loundou A, Monestier S, Mallet S, Richard MA, Régis JM, Grob JJ. Survival of melanoma patients treated with targeted therapy and immunotherapy after systematic upfront control of brain metastases by radiosurgery. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Aug 4;84:44-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.07.017. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28783540.
Shah S, Manzoor S, Rothman Y, Hagen M, Pater L, Golnik K, Mahammedi A, Lin AL, Bhabhra R, Forbes JA, Sengupta S. Complete Response of a Patient With a Mismatch Repair Deficient Aggressive Pituitary Adenoma to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: A Case Report. Neurosurgery. 2022 May 13. doi: 10.1227/neu.0000000000002024. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35544035.
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