The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.
One of the factors that influences intracranial pressure.
It can be useful in the differentiation of different forms of heart and lung disease. Classically three upward deflections and two downward deflections have been described.
The upward deflections are the “a” (atrial contraction), “c” (ventricular contraction and resulting bulging of tricuspid into the right atrium during isovolumetric systole) and “v” = atrial venous filling. The downward deflections of the wave are the “x” (the atrium relaxes and the tricuspid valve moves downward) and the “y” descent (filling of ventricle after tricuspid opening).