A number or quantity that records a directly observable value or performance.

All measures have a unit attached to them: inch, centimeter, dollar, liter, etc. In contrast, an indicator is an indirect measure or a predictor (such as a leading Indicator) of performance.

see Outcome measure.

Measurement is the first step to understanding a process, enabling thoughtful management, and eventually leading to improvement. The old business adage “You can’t improve what you don’t measure” applies perfectly in health management. Various business strategies and tools have been increasingly used by hospitals and aligned physicians to improve and sustain patient health 1) 2).

Wadsworth T, Graves B, Glass S, Harrison AM, Donovan C, Proctor A. Using business intelligence to improve performance. Healthc Financ Manag. 2009;63 (10):68-72.
Mick J. Data-driven decision making: a nursing research and evidence-based practice dashboard. J Nurs Adm. 2011;41(10):391-393.
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