Process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information.

see Declarative memory.

see Episodic memory

see Semantic memory.

see verbal memory

see working memory

see Long term memory

see Short term memory

The entorhinal cortex serve as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation.

Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected neural circuits in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory.

Anticholinergics may negatively impact cognition and memory 1) 2). Newer agents (tolterodine, darifenacin) have less impact on memory. Trospium, a quaternary amine, crosses the blood-brain barrier less readily than other anticholinergics and may have a less negative impact 3).

Moga DC, Carnahan RM, Lund BC, et al. Risks and benefits of bladder antimuscarinics among elderly residents of Veterans Affairs Community Living Centers. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013; 14:749–760
2) , 3)
Kay GG, Ebinger U. Preserving cognitive function for patients with overactive bladder: evidence for a dif- ferential effect with darifenacin. Int J Clin Pract. 2008; 62:1792–1800
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