Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.
A methodology does not set out to provide solutions - it is, therefore, not the same thing as a method. Instead, it offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods or so called “best practices” can be applied to specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result.
A robust methodology provide automatic ways of detecting, downweighting (or removing), and flagging outliers, largely removing the need for manual screening.