Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it is in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.
About 30% of people have atypical symptoms, with women more likely than men to present atypically.
Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, or cardiac arrest.
Adding copeptin to cardiac troponin (cTn) improved the sensitivity and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) compared to cTn alone. Thus, adding copeptin to cTn might help to screen NSTEMI early upon admission to the emergency department (ED) 1).