The primary indications for nerve repair or grafting are
In some nerve injuries (e.g., neurapraxia), the nerve regains sensory or motor function unless irreversible compression, neuroma (axonotmesis), or transection (neurotmesis) occurs. In more severe injuries, there may be significant loss of nerve substance (continuity defect), or a section of nerve may need to be removed to expose normal nerve tissue in preparation for nerve repair. Thus, nerve repair and nerve grafting procedures may be required to provide continuity between the proximal and distal portions of the nerve.
The optimal refinement in nerve repair techniques has reached a plateau, making it imperative to continually explore newer avenues for improving the clinical outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration.