It is found most commonly in post-menopausal white females, and is rare prior to menopause. Lifetime risk of symptomatic vertebral body (VB) osteoporotic compression fractures is 16% for women, and 5% for men. There are ≈ 700,000 VB compression fractures per year in the U.S.
It is the most common form of metabolic bone disease, and have been shown to compromise the strength of spinal instrumentation.
Osteoporosis is a common health problem that can have a serious impact on the elderly population.
It is characterized by low bone mass density triggering debilitated bones that are at elevated risk for fracture 2).
Polymorphisms of the FONG (FTCDNL1) gene (rs7605378) were reported to be associated with the risk of osteoporosis in a Japanese population.
Results indicated that rs10203122 was significantly associated with osteoporosis susceptibility among female. The findings provide evidence that rs10203122 in FTCDNL1 is associated with a susceptibility to osteoporosis 3).
These patients are often found to have significant VB compression fractures on plain films after presenting with back pain following a seemingly minor fall. CT often shows an impressive appearing amount of bone retropulsed into the canal.
T-scores of the lumbar spine and femoral neck from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans
Clinical brain CT scans can assist in the detection of osteoporosis, and patients with an HU value < 610 as determined via brain CT may be considered for further evaluation for possible osteoporosis 4).
Consequences of osteoporosis generally include vertebral, hip, wrist, and ankle fractures 5).
Osteoporosis and related complications like pain, incapacitated motility, spinal deformity, sleep disorders, psychiatric problems, and pulmonary complications have an unfavorable influence on public health 6).
In addition, osteoporosis may contribute to high rates of fracture and instrumentation failure after long posterior spinal fusions, resulting in proximal junctional kyphosis and recurrent spinal deformity. As increasing numbers of elderly patients present for surgical intervention for degenerative and traumatic spinal pathologies, current and future generations of spine surgeons will increasingly be faced with the challenge of obtaining adequate fixation in osteoporotic bone 7).
In elderly patients with severe osteoporosis, instrumented lumbar interbody fusion may result in fixation failure or nonunion because of decreased pedicle screw pullout strength or increased interbody graft subsidence risk. Thus, given its many advantages, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation with cement augmentation can be an effective method to use in elderly patients.
Management of spine surgery patients with osteoporosis is challenging because of the difficulty of instrumenting and the potential complications, including nonunion and adjacent level fractures. Treatment of this patient population should involve a multidisciplinary approach including the spine surgeon, primary care physician, endocrinologist, and physical therapist. Indication for preoperative treatment before spinal fusion surgery is unclear. All patients should receive calcium and vitamin D. Hormone replacement therapy, including estrogen or selective estrogen receptor modulators, should be considered for elderly female patients with decreased bone mass. Bisphosphonates or intermittent parathyroid hormone are reserved for those with significant bone loss in the spine. Pretreatment with antiresorption medications affect bone remodeling, which is a vital part of graft incorporation and fusion. Although there have been numerous animal studies, there is limited clinical evidence. Accordingly, surgery should be delayed, if possible, to treat the osteoporosis before the intervention. Treatment may include bisphosphonates, as well as newer agents, such as recombinant parathyroid hormone. Further clinical data are needed to understand the relative advantages/disadvantage of antiresorptive vs anabolic agents, as well as the impact of administration of these medications before vs after fusion surgery. Future clinical studies will enable better understanding of the impact of current therapies on biomechanics and fusion outcomes in this unique and increasingly prevalent patient population 8).
Osteoporosis may contribute to high rates of fracture and instrumentation failure after long posterior spinal fusions, resulting in proximal junctional kyphosis and recurrent spinal deformity. As increasing numbers of elderly patients present for surgical intervention for degenerative and traumatic spinal pathologies, current and future generations of spine surgeons will increasingly be faced with the challenge of obtaining adequate fixation in osteoporotic bone 9).
The PearlDiver database (2005-2012) was used to determine revision rates in elderly adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients treated with a primary thoracolumbar posterolateral fusion of 8 or more levels. Analyzed risk factors included demographics, comorbid conditions, and surgical factors. Significant univariate predictors were further analyzed with multivariate analysis. The causes of revision at each year of follow-up were determined.
A total of 2293 patients who had been treated with posterolateral fusion of 8 or more levels were identified. At the 1-year follow-up, 241 (10.5%) patients had been treated with revision surgery, while 424 (18.5%) had revision surgery within 5 years. On univariate analysis, obesity was found to be a significant predictor of revision surgery at 1 year, while bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) use was found to significantly decrease revision surgery at 4 and 5 years of followup. Diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and smoking history were all significant univariate predictors of increased revision risk at multiple years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis at 5 years of follow-up revealed that osteoporosis (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.60-2.46, p < 0.0001) and BMP use (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88, p = 0.002) were significantly associated with an increased and decreased revision risk, respectively. Smoking history trended toward significance (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.10-1.70, p = 0.005). Instrument failure was consistently the most commonly cited reason for revision. Five years following surgery, it was estimated that the cohort had 68.8% survivorship.
For elderly patients with ASD, osteoporosis increases the risk of revision surgery, while BMP use decreases the risk. Other comorbidities were not found to be significant predictors of long-term revision rates. It is expected that within 5 years following the index procedure, over 30% of patients will require revision surgery.