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parkinson_s_disease

Parkinson's disease

James Parkinson was the first to describe Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 1817; he described it as a combination of tremor, rigidity, postural abnormalities, and bradykinesia.

Definition

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by the preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which project to the striatum.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease involving the basal ganglia, resulting in motor and extra-motor deficits. These extra-motor deficits may be reflective of a self-regulatory deficit impacting patients' ability to regulate cognitive processes, thoughts, behaviors, and emotions.

With advances in knowledge disease, boundaries may change. Occasionally, these changes are of such a magnitude that they require redefinition of the disease. In recognition of the profound changes in our understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD), the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to consider a redefinition of PD.

Several critical issues were identified that challenge current PD definitions. First, new findings challenge the central role of the classical pathologic criteria as the arbiter of diagnosis, notably genetic cases without synuclein deposition, the high prevalence of incidental Lewy body (LB) deposition, and the nonmotor prodrome of PD. It remains unclear, however, whether these challenges merit a change in the pathologic gold standard, especially considering the limitations of alternate gold standards. Second, the increasing recognition of dementia in PD challenges the distinction between diffuse LB disease and PD. Consideration might be given to removing dementia as an exclusion criterion for PD diagnosis. Third, there is increasing recognition of disease heterogeneity, suggesting that PD subtypes should be formally identified; however, current subtype classifications may not be sufficiently robust to warrant formal delineation. Fourth, the recognition of a nonmotor prodrome of PD requires that new diagnostic criteria for early-stage and prodromal PD should be created; here, essential features of these criteria are proposed. Finally, there is a need to create new MDS diagnostic criteria that take these changes in disease definition into consideration 1).

see Parkinson's Disease Dementia

Classification

Current subtype classifications may not be sufficiently robust to warrant formal delineation.

see also Tremor predominant Parkinson's disease.

Epidemiology

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease.

Typically, people with Parkinson's disease receive the diagnosis in the sixth or seventh decade of life. Age is the most important risk factor for the disease, and it has been estimated that 1 to 2% of people older than 60 years of age are affected.

Etiology

see Parkinson's disease etiology.

Pathophysiology

see Parkinson's disease pathophysiology.

Clinical Features

see Parkinson disease clinical features.

Diagnosis

Parkinson's disease diagnosis.

Treatment

see Parkinson's disease treatment.

Outcome

Parkinson's disease outcome

Case series

see Parkinson's disease case series.

Case reports

Parkinson´s disease case reports.

1)
Berg D, Postuma RB, Bloem B, Chan P, Dubois B, Gasser T, Goetz CG, Halliday GM, Hardy J, Lang AE, Litvan I, Marek K, Obeso J, Oertel W, Olanow CW, Poewe W, Stern M, Deuschl G. Time to redefine PD? Introductory statement of the MDS Task Force on the definition of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2014 Apr;29(4):454-62. doi: 10.1002/mds.25844. Epub 2014 Mar 11. PubMed PMID: 24619848.
parkinson_s_disease.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/19 18:28 by administrador