Parkinson´s disease case reports

A 54-year-old Parkinson´s disease patient who underwent a DBS implantation to the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally. Shortly after the operation, the subcutaneous pocket of the generator filled with a liquid. Repeated aspirations did not show any bacterial contamination, and an infection was not found. In the sample, a beta-trace protein was detected that proved the presence of cerebrospinal fluid. A lumbar drain was immediately placed, and a chest compression bandage was fastened for 7 days. After removing the lumbar drain and the compression bandage, no additional liquid was observed, and the wound healed without any other complication. Hanuska et al. presented an unusual adverse event related to DBS surgery and suggest an effective treatment that has led to uncomplicated healing 1).

Listik et al. from the University of São Paulo describe a rare situation in which both essential tremor (ET) and PD coexist in a 72-year-old male referred for zona incerta ZI-DBS due to refractory tremor. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was a difference in the area stimulated to improve each type of tremor and whether tractography could improve and predict motor outcome.

Two months after the surgery, in order to define which of the cathodes was the most effective towards improving the tremor and parkinsonian symptoms, a double-blinded, monopolar evaluation was conducted on both hemispheres separately. Once the best contact and parameters were defined, the volume of tissue activation (VTA) was represented spatially for each type of tremor and, finally, the image model was fused with the tractography.

For both types of tremor, the hot spot stimulated region achieved the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) at the higher fiber density region. The DRTT fibers were asymmetrical between the right and left hemispheres.

Regardless of the type of tremor, DRTT can be the most effective region for stimulation. Tractography should be considered when planning the surgical target since the DRTT is not always symmetrical, and the reconstruction of the VTA together with the tractography can greatly improve the DBS programming, and, probably, the patient's outcome to the stimulation 2).

A 38-year-old male with Parkinson's disease developed intractable hemiballism in his left extremities due to a small lesion that was located adjacent to the right deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead, 10 months after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS placement. He underwent a right globus pallidus internus (GPi)-DBS lead implantation. GPi-DBS satisfactorily addressed his hemiballism.

This case offered a unique look at basal ganglia physiology in human hemiballism. GPi-DBS is a reasonable therapeutic option for the treatment of medication refractory hemiballism in the setting of Parkinson's disease 3).

Hanuska J, Urgosik D, Raev S, Ruzicka F, Jech R. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak to the IPG Subcutaneous Pocket after Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation: A Case Report. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2019 Dec 18:1-3. doi: 10.1159/000504680. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31852004.
Listik C, Santiago N, Reis PR, Godinho F, Duarte K, Teixeira MJ, Barbosa ER, Cury RG. Targeting the hot spot in a patient with essential tremor and Parkinson's disease: Tractography matters. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Sep 26;174:230-232. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.09.037. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30286441.
Oyama G, Maling N, Avila-Thompson A, Zeilman PR, Foote KD, Malaty IA, Rodriguez RL, Okun MS. Rescue GPi-DBS for a Stroke-associated Hemiballism in a Patient with STN-DBS. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y). 2014 Feb 4;4. pii: tre-04-214-4855-1. doi: 10.7916/D8XP72WF. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24587970.
  • parkinson_s_disease_case_reports.txt
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