Diagnosis largely depends on clinical observation, but motor dysfunctions do not emerge until 70%-80% of the nigrostriatal nerve terminals have been destroyed. Therefore, a biomarker that indicates the degeneration dopaminergic neurons is urgently needed.

DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate provide different but complementary information for different parkinsonisms. Combined DTI and apparent transverse relaxation rate may be a superior marker for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonisms 1).

Parkinson's disease biomarkers

The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to establish the possible value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum/plasma levels of amino acids as markers of Parkinson's disease (PD).

This is a review of four databases (PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science - Core Collection) from 1966 to 14 March 2020, with identification of references of interest for the topic. The meta-analysis of eligible studies was done using R software package meta, following the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines.

Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, PD patients showed decreased CSF levels of glutamate and taurine and increased CSF levels of tyrosine; decreased serum/plasma levels of aspartate, serine, tryptophan, and lysine, and increased serum/plasma proline and homocysteine levels.

Despite the limitations of this study due to the important variability of results between different series, the findings suggest the value of CSF or serum/plasma levels of several amino acids in the discrimination of PD patients from healthy subjects, related to the levels of some amino acids 2).

Du G, Lewis MM, Kanekar S, Sterling NW, He L, Kong L, Li R, Huang X. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Apparent Transverse Relaxation Rate Differentiate Parkinson's disease and Atypical Parkinsonism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Mar 31. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5136. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28364007.
Jiménez-Jiménez FJ, Alonso-Navarro H, García-Martín E, Agúndez JAG. Cerebrospinal and blood levels of amino acids as potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease: review and meta-analysis. Eur J Neurol. 2020 Aug 10. doi: 10.1111/ene.14470. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32777152.
  • parkinson_s_disease_diagnosis.txt
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