Parkinson's disease etiology

It is clear that the immune system and inflammation have a role in Parkinson's disease (PD), including sporadic Parkinson's disease and some genetic forms such as LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease. One of the most important genes associated with PD is GBA1, as mutations in this gene are found in 5-20% of PD patients in different populations worldwide. Biallelic mutations in GBA1 may cause Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder with involvement of the immune system, and other lines of evidence link GBA1 to the immune system and inflammation 1).

The cause of PD is unknown in most cases. Genetic risk factors have been identified, including monogenetic causes that are rare in unselected populations. Some genetic factor can be identified in 5-10% of the patients 2)

Epigenetic influences mediating brain iron deposition, oxidative mitochondrial injury, and macroautophagy in Parkinson's disease and related conditions remain enigmatic 3).

Sporadic PD is hypothesized to be a result of genetic susceptibility interacting with environmental insult. Epidemiological studies suggest that pesticide exposure is linked to higher PD risk, but there are no studies demonstrating SN changes with chronic pesticide exposure in human subjects.

The changes detected by MRI may mark “one of the hits” leading to PD, and underlie the increased risk of PD in pesticide users found in epidemiological studies. Further human studies assisted by these imaging markers may be useful in understanding the etiology of PD 4).

Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD 5).

Over the years Genome-wide association study (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic risk factors, however it is unclear whether genetics contribute to disease Parkinson's disease etiology in a sex-specific manner.

A study does not support the notion that common genetic variation on the autosomes could explain the difference in prevalence of PD between males and females at least when considering the current sample size under study. Further studies are warranted to investigate the genetic architecture of PD explained by X and Y chromosomes and further evaluate environmental effects that could potentially contribute to PD etiology in male versus females 6).

Al-Azzawi ZAM, Arfaie S, Gan-Or Z. GBA1 and The Immune System: A Potential Role in Parkinson's Disease? J Parkinsons Dis. 2022 Aug 29. doi: 10.3233/JPD-223423. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36057834.
Tysnes OB, Storstein A. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017 Aug;124(8):901-905. doi: 10.1007/s00702-017-1686-y. Epub 2017 Feb 1. PMID: 28150045.
Song W, Cressatti M, Zukor H, Liberman A, Galindez C, Schipper HM. Parkinsonian features in aging GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice overexpressing human HO-1 in the astroglial compartment. Neurobiol Aging. 2017 Jun 28;58:163-179. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.06.017. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28746897.
Du G, Lewis MM, Sterling NW, Kong L, Chen H, Mailman RB, Huang X. Microstructural changes in the substantia nigra of asymptomatic agricultural workers. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Dec 12;41C:60-64. doi: 10.1016/ [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24334261.
McLelland GL, Soubannier V, Chen CX, McBride HM, Fon EA. Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. EMBO J. 2014 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24446486.
Blauwendraat C, Iwaki H, Makarious MB, Bandres-Ciga S, Leonard H, Grenn FP, Lake J, Krohn L, Tan M, Kim JJ, Gibbs JR, Hernandez DG, Ruskey JA, Pihlstrøm L, Toft M, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Schulte C, Brockmann K, Sharma M, Siitonen A, Majamaa K, Eerola-Rautio J, Tienari PJ, Grosset DG, Lesage S, Corvol JC, Brice A, Wood N, Hardy J, Gan-Or Z, Heutink P, Gasser T, Morris HR, Noyce AJ, Nalls MA, Singleton AB; International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), Noyce AJ, Kaiyrzhanov R, Middlehurst B, Kia DA, Tan M, Houlden H, Storm CS, Morris HR, Plun-Favreau H, Holmans P, Hardy J, Trabzuni D, Quinn J, Bubb V, Mok KY, Kinghorn KJ, Wood NW, Lewis P, Schreglmann SR, Lovering R, R'Bibo L, Manzoni C, Rizig M, Ryten M, Guelfi S, Escott-Price V, Chelban V, Foltynie T, Williams N, Morrison KE, Clarke C, Harvey K, Jacobs BM, Brice A, Danjou F, Lesage S, Corvol JC, Martinez M, Schulte C, Brockmann K, Simón-Sánchez J, Heutink P, Rizzu P, Sharma M, Gasser T, Schneider SA, Cookson MR, Bandres-Ciga S, Blauwendraat C, Craig DW, Billingsley K, Makarious MB, Narendra DP, Faghri F, Gibbs JR, Hernandez DG, Van Keuren-Jensen K, Shulman JM, Iwaki H, Leonard HL, Nalls MA, Robak L, Bras J, Guerreiro R, Lubbe S, Troycoco T, Finkbeiner S, Mencacci NE, Lungu C, Singleton AB, Scholz SW, Reed X, Uitti RJ, Ross OA, Grenn FP, Moore A, Alcalay RN, Wszolek ZK, Gan-Or Z, Rouleau GA, Krohn L, Mufti K, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Adarmes-Gómez AD, Aguilar M, Alvarez I, Alvarez V, Barrero FJ, Yarza JAB, Bernal-Bernal I, Blazquez M, Bonilla-Toribio M, Botía JA, Boungiorno MT, Buiza-Rueda D, Cámara A, Carrillo F, Carrión-Claro M, Cerdan D, Clarimón J, Compta Y, Diez-Fairen M, Dols-Icardo O, Duarte J, Duran R, Escamilla-Sevilla F, Ezquerra M, Feliz C, Fernández M, Fernández-Santiago R, Garcia C, García-Ruiz P, Gómez-Garre P, Heredia MJG, Gonzalez-Aramburu I, Pagola AG, Hoenicka J, Infante J, Jesús S, Jimenez-Escrig A, Kulisevsky J, Labrador-Espinosa MA, Lopez-Sendon JL, de Munain Arregui AL, Macias D, Torres IM, Marín J, Marti MJ, Martínez-Castrillo JC, Méndez-Del-Barrio C, González MM, Mata M, Mínguez A, Mir P, Rezola EM, Muñoz E, Pagonabarraga J, Pastor P, Errazquin FP, Periñán-Tocino T, Ruiz-Martínez J, Ruz C, Rodriguez AS, Sierra M, Suarez-Sanmartin E, Tabernero C, Tartari JP, Tejera-Parrado C, Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F, Vargas-González L, Vela L, Vives F, Zimprich A, Pihlstrom L, Toft M, Taba P, Koks S, Hassin-Baer S, Majamaa K, Siitonen A, Tienari P, Okubadejo NU, Ojo OO, Kaiyrzhanov R, Shashkin C, Zharkinbekova N, Akhmetzhanov V, Kaishybayeva G, Karimova A, Khaibullin T, Lynch TL. Investigation of Autosomal Genetic Sex Differences in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2021 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/ana.26090. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33901317.
  • parkinson_s_disease_etiology.txt
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