Besides open discectomy, other interventional techniques were developed to overcome the side effects of surgical procedures.

In 1964 the American orthopedic surgeon Lyman Smith (1912-1991) introduced chemonucleolysis, a minimally invasive technique consisting only of a cannula and the proteolytic enzyme chymopapain, which is injected into the disc compartment to dissolve the displaced disc material.

  • percutaneous_chemonucleolysis.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/02/23 09:39
  • by