Between June 2011 and June 2017, clinical data from 42 patients with 43 true Posterior communicating artery aneurysms who underwent EVT were retrieved from a prospectively maintained single-center database. Endovascular techniques, perioperative complications, clinical outcomes, and angiographic results were retrospectively evaluated.
All aneurysms were treated successfully. Treatment modalities included simple coiling in 30 aneurysms, balloon-assisted coiling in two, and stent-assisted coiling in 11 cases. Immediate angiograms showed complete occlusion in 23 aneurysms (53.5%), residual neck in 8 cases (18.6%), and residual sac in 12 (27.9%). No procedure-related complications or mortality were observed. Of the 34 aneurysms that underwent angiographic follow-up at an average duration of 7.1 months post-procedure, complete occlusion was achieved in 22 (64.7%), neck remnant in eight (23.5%), and residual sac in four (11.8%) aneurysms, respectively. Six aneurysms (18.2%) that underwent conventional coiling developed recanalization and required retreatment. Seven cases that received stent-assisted coiling did not develop recurrence. Clinical follow-up (mean, 24.3 months) of all patients demonstrated no neurologic deterioration or (re)bleeding.
EVT of the true PcomA aneurysm is a safe and feasible procedure but may be associated with recurrence in midterm follow-up, requiring close surveillance and potential retreatment 1).
A total of 65 patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database in this study. The aneurysms were categorized into lateral and posterior projection groups, depending on direction of the dome. Characteristics and operative findings of each projection group were identified. They also evaluated any correlation of aneurysm projection with the incidence of procedure-related complications.
Patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms with posterior projection more likely presented with good-admission-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (P = .01, χ test) and were less to also have intracerebral hematoma (P = .01). These aneurysms were found to be associated with higher incidence of intraoperative rupture (P = .02), complex clipping with fenestrated clips (P = .02), and dense adherence to PCoA or its perforators (P = .04) by univariate analysis. Aneurysms with posterior projection were also correlated with procedure-related complications, including postoperative cerebral infarction or hematoma formation (odds ratio, 5.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-31.1; P = .04) by multivariable analysis.
Ruptured PCoA aneurysms with posterior projection carried a higher risk of procedure-related complications of surgical clipping than those with lateral projection 2).
From 2007 to 2014, 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling were retreated. When the previous frames covered the aneurysms all around or almost around except a part of the neck, coiling was chosen. In other cases, clipping was chosen. Clipping was attempted without removal of coils when it was technically feasible. Among the 10 IC-PC aneurysms retreated, 3 were retreated with coiling and 7 were retreated with clipping. In all three cases retreated with coiling, almost complete occlusion was accomplished. In the seven cases retreated with clipping, coil extrusion was observed during surgery in six cases. In most of them, it was necessary to dissect strong adhesions around the coiled aneurysms and to utilize temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In all seven cases, neck clipping was accomplished without the removal of coils. There were no neurological complications in any cases. The management of recurrent lesions of embolized IC-PC aneurysms requires appropriate choice of treatment using both coiling and clipping. Clipping, especially without the removal of coils, plays an important role in safe treatment 3).
Park et al. retrospectively reviewed all patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm treated with clipping in the past 5 years. Only the patients who underwent both computed tomographic angiography and 4-vessel digital subtraction angiography were included in this study. We measured several angles and distances on these images, and compared the parameters measured between an anterior clinoidectomy group and a non-anterior clinoidectomy group. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
They examined 94 cases of posterior communicating artery aneurysms treated with clipping. The ACP was resected in 6 of the 94 cases. In the anterior clinoidectomy group, there were 3 factors that were statistically significant. First, the calculated real distance between the ACP and the aneurysmal neck was shorter (mean, 4.4 +/- 0.7 versus 7.2 +/- 1.4 mm). Second, the angle between vertical line to cranial base and communicating segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was larger (mean, 62.5 +/- 4.6 versus 50.9 +/- 10.7 degrees). Third, the angle between the communicating segment and the ophthalmic segment of the ICA was smaller (mean, 66.5 +/- 15.1 versus 84.6 +/- 20.4 degrees).
The anterior clinoidectomy group showed a more tortuous course of intracranial ICA around the ACP than the nonclinoidectomy group. Therefore, measurement of the distal ICA angle is helpful in predicting the necessity of anterior clinoidectomy 4).
Recovery of posterior communicating artery aneurysm-induced oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) after aneurysm coiling has been reported. However, the coil mass may compromise recovery of the nerve. Therefore, Chen et al. compared the outcome of coiling and clipping for this indication.
They retrospectively compared the outcomes of ONP in 13 patients, six of whom underwent endovascular coiling and seven of whom underwent surgical clipping.
Six of the seven surgical patients with ONP recovered completely, compared with two of the six patients in the endovascular group. Of the patients with more than 1 year of follow-up, all six surgical patients recovered completely, compared with two of four endovascular patients (P = 0.05). In addition, preoperative complete or partial ONP also was associated with degree of resolution by survival analysis (P = 0.03). All patients with partial ONP in the surgical group and two of three patients in the endovascular group recovered without residual deficits, whereas three of the four patients with complete ONP in the clipping group and none in the coiling group recovered completely. Regardless of the treatment method, time to complete resolution of ONP was 6 months in both groups.
Clipping posterior communicating artery aneurysms was associated with a higher probability of complete recovery from oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) than coiling. Degree of preoperative ONP also affected recovery. If patients can tolerate surgery, it should be considered the treatment of choice 5).
One hundred and seventy-four patients with a posterior communicating aneurysm were seen over a 21 year period. There was a ratio of four females to one male and women were on average five years older. Fifty-nine (34%) had an oculomotor paresis. This group had up to four attacks of localized headache, large multiloculated aneurysms, and a greater time lapse from the onset of symptoms to surgery compared with those patients without oculomotor palsy. Delay in treatment allowed further attacks to occur which increased the mortality rate and decreased the chance that the eye would recover. Eighteen people who had had a palsy before craniotomy two to 18 years previously were examined. In four (22%) the paralysis had recovered completely, 14 (78%) had greatly reduced oculomotor function, and nine (50%) showed aberrant regeneration of the nerve. Nine of 62 patients, seven of whom were seen, developed a palsy after craniotomy and in five the eye had returned to normal 6).