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posterior_fossa_dermoid_cyst

Posterior fossa dermoid cyst

Many reports have mentioned the intradural posterior fossa and the midline as the preferential localization of these intracranial dermoid cyst 1) 2). In contrast, extradural dermoid cysts are a much rarer entity 3) 4).

The histopathological differentiation between posterior fossa teratoma and posterior fossa intracranial dermoid cyst is very valuable for ruling out the presence of immature/malignant or germinomatous components that would require further adjuvant therapies. Posterior fossa teratoma mimicking posterior fossa dermoid cyst has been described 5).

Posterior fossa dermoid cyst and Klippel Feil syndrome

Complications

Some of these dermoid cysts can get infected with dermal colonizing bacteria and cause deeper suppurations 6) 7) 8).

2015

Teegala presents two original cases of infected posterior fossa dermoid associated with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) that is very rare. The embryologic basis for this unique occurrence is reviewed, and a new hypothesis proposed. Two infants with CHD presented with infected midline posterior fossa dermoid. Excision of the dermoid cyst with the sinus tract was performed. Postoperative period was uneventful. Both the infants had undergone surgery for congenial heart disease a few months prior to the present clinical presentation with uneventful recovery. Infected posterior fossa dermoid cyst without a discharging sinus should prompt a thorough examination to detect CHD. Early diagnosis and timely management results in better outcome 9).


Paik et al. present a ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa. The patient was a 32-year-old female who complained occipital headache, blurred vision, and tinnitus over 4 years. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an enhanced tumor in the right cavernous sinus extending into the right temporal base and the posterior fossa with findings of ruptured cyst. Surgical resection was performed, and pathological findings were confirmed to be a dermoid cyst. They report a second case with ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa 10).

2014

A 49-year-old farmer had a 2-month history of occipital headaches, which were not suggestive of raised intracranial pressure. During the last month, he experienced loss of balance, frequent falls, anorexia and loss of weight. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge mass from the tentorium to the foramen magnum with obliteration of the fourth ventricle; the lesion was well circumscribed. Marina et al. completely removed the tumor and postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor. Epidermoid tumors with enhancing mural nodule on MRI and with hyperattenuating lesion on CT are extremely rare. Dermoid cysts are never associated with edema and extremely rarely cause obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI investigations are mandatory to diagnose these cases. The best curative treatment is total removal of the lesion 11).

1)
Guidetti B, Gagliardi F M. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts. Clinical evaluation and late surgical results. J Neurosurg. 1977;47:12–18.
2)
Bogdanowicz W M, Wilson D H. Dermoid cyst of the fourth ventricle demonstrated on brain scan. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1972;36:228–230.
3)
Ammirati M, Delgado M, Slone H W, Ray-Chaudhury A. Extradural dermoid tumor of the petrous apex. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:426–429.
4)
Blythe J N, Revington P J, Nelson R. Anterior cranial fossa dermoid cyst: case report. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:661–663.
5)
Bohara M, Yonezawa H, Karki P, Bakhtiar Y, Hirano H, Kitazono I, Matsuyama N, Arita K. Mature posterior fossa teratoma mimicking dermoid cyst. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2013 Oct;30(4):262-5. doi: 10.1007/s10014-012-0129-6. Epub 2012 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 23263509.
6)
Cai CQ, Zhang QJ, Hu XL, Wang CX. Dermoid cyst of the posterior fossa associated with congenital dermal sinus in a child. World J Pediatr. 2008;4:66–9.
7)
Akhaddar A, Jiddane M, Chakir N, El Hassani R, Moustarchid B, Bellakhdar F. Cerebellar abscesses secondary to occipital dermoid cyst with dermal sinus: Case report. Surg Neurol. 2002;58:266–70.
8)
Logue V, Till K. Posterior fossa dermoid cysts with special reference to intracranial infection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1952;15:1–12.
9)
Teegala R. Posterior fossa infected dermoid with congenital heart disease: A novel hypothesis of an unusual association. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2015 Jul-Sep;10(3):250-3. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.165681. PubMed PMID: 26557168; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4611896.
10)
Paik SC, Kim CH, Cheong JH, Kim JM. A Ruptured Dermoid Cyst of the Cavernous Sinus Extending into the Posterior Fossa. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2015 May;57(5):364-6. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2015.57.5.364. Epub 2015 May 31. PubMed PMID: 26113964; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4479718.
11)
Morina A, Kelmendi F, Morina Q, Morina D. Cerebellar dermoid cyst with contrast enhancement mural nodule: case report. Acta Clin Croat. 2014 Dec;53(4):479-82. PubMed PMID: 25868317.
posterior_fossa_dermoid_cyst.txt · Last modified: 2015/12/29 16:06 (external edit)