Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus

Cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) × time ≥ 9,600 and GCS score <8 were independent risk factors for PHH. CSF-TP was higher in the PHH group than in the NPHH group 1)

Lolansen et al. aimed to elucidate the molecular coupling between a hemorrhagic event and the subsequent PHH development, and reveal the inflammatory profile of the PHH pathogenesis.

CSF obtained from patients with SAH was analyzed for inflammatory markers using the proximity extension assay (PEA) technique. We employed an in vivo rat model of IVH to determine ventricular size, brain water content, intracranial pressure, and CSF secretion rate, as well as for transcriptomic analysis. Ex vivo radio-isotope assays of choroid plexus transport were employed to determine the direct effect of choroidal exposure to blood and inflammatory markers, both with acutely isolated choroid plexus and after prolonged exposure obtained with viable choroid plexus kept in tissue culture conditions.

The rat model of IVH demonstrated posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and associated CSF hypersecretion. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity was enhanced in choroid plexus isolated from IVH rats, but not directly stimulated by blood components. Inflammatory markers that were elevated in SAH patient CSF acted on immune receptors upregulated in IVH rat choroid plexus and caused Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) hyperactivity in ex vivo experimental conditions.

Cerebrospinal fluid hypersecretion may contribute to PHH development, likely due to hyperactivity of choroid plexus transporters. The hemorrhage-induced inflammation detected in CSF and in the choroid plexus tissue may represent the underlying pathology. Therapeutic targeting of such pathways may be employed in future treatment strategies towards PHH patients 2).

Wang Z, Chen Y, Zhou X, Wang C, Chen X, Min F, Liu R, Xiang H. Risk Factor of Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus: Cerebrospinal Fluid Total Protein. Front Surg. 2022 Feb 17;9:692383. doi: 10.3389/fsurg.2022.692383. PMID: 35252319; PMCID: PMC8891476.
Lolansen SD, Rostgaard N, Barbuskaite D, Capion T, Olsen MH, Norager NH, Vilhardt F, Andreassen SN, Toft-Bertelsen TL, Ye F, Juhler M, Keep RF, MacAulay N. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus associates with elevated inflammation and CSF hypersecretion via activation of choroidal transporters. Fluids Barriers CNS. 2022 Aug 10;19(1):62. doi: 10.1186/s12987-022-00360-w. PMID: 35948938.
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