Prasugrel (trade name Effient in the US and India, and Efient in the EU) is a drug used to prevent the formation of blood clots. It is a platelet inhibitor and an irreversible anatagonist of P2Y12 ADP receptors and is of the thienopyridine drug class. It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo Co. and produced by Ube and currently marketed in the United States in cooperation with Eli Lilly and Company.
Prasugrel was approved for use in Europe in February 2009, and in the US in July 2009, for the reduction of thrombotic cardiovascular events (including stent thrombosis) in people with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are to be managed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
In a cohort of patients treated with PEDs, prasugrel (10 mg/day) was a safe alternative to clopidogrel-resistant or clopidogrel-allergic patients, or nonresponders 1).
Data suggest that many patients exhibit clopidogrel resistance. Prasugrel a thienopyridine lowers the rate of cardiac stent thromboses in clopidogrel non-responders.
Four hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients were identified between January 2011 and May 2016. Patients allergic, or having less than 30% platelet inhibition, to a daily 75-mg dose of clopidogrel received 10 mg of prasugrel daily (n = 20) or 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily (n = 2). The mean (± SD) follow-up duration was 15.8 ± 12.4 months. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score registered before discharge and at each follow-up visit. To control confounding, multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression and propensity score conditioning were used. RESULTS Twenty-six (5.9%) of 437 patients presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The mean patient age was 56.3 years, and 62 were women (14.2%). One of the 7 patients lost to follow-up received prasugrel. One patient was allergic to clopidogrel and prasugrel simultaneously. All patients receiving prasugrel or ticagrelor (n = 22) had an mRS score ≤ 2 on their latest follow-up visit (mean score 0.67 ± 1.15). In a multivariate analysis, clopidogrel did not affect the mRS score on last follow-up (p = 0.14). Multivariable logistic regression showed that clopidogrel was not associated with an increased long-term recurrence rate (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.01-2.70, p = 0.21), an increased thromboembolic complication rate (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.12-1.67, p = 0.24), or an increased hemorrhagic event rate (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, p = 0.20). None of the patients receiving prasugrel or ticagrelor died or suffered a long-term recurrence or a hemorrhagic event; only 1 patient suffered from mild aphasia subsequent to a thromboembolic event. Three patients taking clopidogrel died during the study: 2 from acute SAH and 1 from intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Clopidogrel was not associated with an increased mortality rate (OR 2.18, 95% CI 0.11-43.27, p = 0.61). The same associations were present in propensity score-adjusted models.
In a cohort of patients treated with PEDs, prasugrel (10 mg/day) was a safe alternative to clopidogrel-resistant or clopidogrel-allergic patients, or nonresponders 2).
Significant heterogeneity in dual antiplatelet therapy regimens following Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) placement and associated costs, exists at major academic neurovascular centers. The most commonly used first line dual antiplatelet regimen consists of aspirin and clopidogrel. Two major alternate protocols involving ticagrelor and prasugrel, are administered to clopidogrel hypo-responders. The optimal dual antiplatelet regimen for patients with cerebrovascular conditions has not been established, given limited prospective data within the neurointerventional literature 3).
Results suggest that DAPT with aspirin/prasugrel may predispose to a higher risk of hemorrhage during neurointerventional surgery compared with DAPT with aspirin/clopidogrel 4).