Proteins are large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in folding of the protein into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.
Extracellular vesicles secreted by human glioma cells contain a wealth of tumor-specific proteins and nucleic acids that can be isolated from patients with these neoplasms. Thus, EV contribute to the development of biomarkers, and additionally have certain therapeutic potential for possible use in neurooncology and neurosurgery 1).