The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body that supplies the posterior portion of the upper limb. It innervates the medial and lateralheads of the triceps brachii muscle of the arm, as well as all 12 muscles in the posterior osteofascial compartment of the forearm and the associated joints and overlying skin.
It originates from the brachial plexus, carrying fibers from the ventral roots of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.
The radial nerve and its branches provide motor innervation to the dorsal arm muscles (the triceps brachii and the anconeus) and the extrinsic extensors of the wrists and hands; it also provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand. The ulnar nerve provides cutaneous sensory innervation to the back of the little finger and adjacent half of the ring finger.
The radial nerve divides into a deep branch, which becomes the posterior interosseous nerve, and a superficial branch, which goes on to innervate the dorsum (back) of the hand.
Patients with brachial plexus injury and an intact C7 root could benefit from the radial to axillary transfer in addition to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) to suprascapular nerve (SSN) transfer. There was no association between recovery of shoulder abduction and time interval from injury to surgery, age, gender, smoking and BMI. 1)