42 rats, tail disc punctured with an 18-gauge needle, were divided into 3 groups: untreated (n=6), injected with crosslinked HDC (n=18), and injected with Annulus Fibrosus cell-laden crosslinked HDC (n=18). Ovine AF cells were mixed with HDC gels prior to injection. X-rays and MRIs were conducted over 5 weeks, determining disc height index (DHI), nucleus pulposus (NP) size, and hydration. Histological assessments evaluated the viability of implanted cells and degree of annular repair.
Although average DHIs of both HDC gel groups were higher than those of the puncture control group at 5 weeks, the retention of disc height, NP size and hydration at 1 and 5 weeks was significant for the cellular group compared to the punctured, and at 5 weeks to the acellular group. Histological assessment indicated that AF cell-laden HDC gels have accelerated reparative sealing compared to acellular HDC gels.
AF cell-laden HDC gels have the ability of better repairing annular defects than acellular gels after needle puncture.
This project addresses the compelling demand of a sufficient treatment strategy for degenerative disc disease (DDD) perpetuated by annulus fibrosus (AF) injury, a major cause of morbidity and burden to health care systems.
The study is designed to answer the question of whether injectable, photo-crosslinked, high density collagen gels can seal defects in the annulus fibrosus of rats and prevent disc degeneration. Furthermore, we investigated whether the healing of AF defects will be enhanced by the delivery of AF cells (fibrochondrocytes) to these defects. The use of cell-laden collagen gels in spine surgery holds promise for a wide array of applications, from current discectomy procedures to future nucleus pulposus reparative therapies 1).
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome is characterized by a progressive sensorimotor neuropathy, optic atrophy, hearing loss, bulbar dysfunction, and respiratory insufficiency. Mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, encoding riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively, are the genetic basis of this disorder, often referred to as riboflavin transporter deficiency types 2 and 3, respectively. We present cases of both types of riboflavin transporter deficiency, highlighting the distinguishing clinical features of a rapidly progressive motor or sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, and bulbar dysfunction. One child presented with isolated central apnea and hypoventilation, not previously described in genetically confirmed Brown-Vialetto-van Laere, later complicated by diaphragmatic paralysis secondary to phrenic nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hyperintensity in the dorsal spinal cord in 2 children, as well as previously unreported cervical nerve root enlargement and cauda equina ventral nerve root enhancement in 1 child. Novel homozygous mutations were identified in each gene-a NM_024531.4(SLC52A2):c.505C > T, NP_078807.1(SLC52A2):p.(Arg169Cys) variant in SLC52A2 and NM_033409.3(SLC52A3):c.1316G > A, NP_212134.3(SLC52A3):p.(Gly439Asp) variant in SLC52A3. Both treated children showed improvement on high-dose riboflavin supplementation, highlighting the importance of early recognition of this treatable clinical entity 2).
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel. Brain and spinal cord neuropathological examination of two cases with SLC52A3 mutations showed classical symmetrical brainstem lesions resembling pathology seen in mitochondrial disease, including severe neuronal loss in the lower cranial nerve nuclei, anterior horns and corresponding nerves, atrophy of the spinothalamic and spinocerebellar tracts and posterior column-medial lemniscus pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction has previously been implicated in an array of neurodegenerative disorders. Since riboflavin metabolites are critical components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, we hypothesized that reduced riboflavin transport would result in impaired mitochondrial activity, and confirmed this using in vitro and in vivo models. Electron transport chain complex I and complex II activity were decreased in SLC52A2 patient fibroblasts, while global knockdown of the single Drosophila melanogaster riboflavin transporter homologue revealed reduced levels of riboflavin, downstream metabolites, and electron transport chain complex I activity. This in turn led to abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory chain activity and morphology. Riboflavin transporter knockdown in Drosophila also resulted in severely impaired locomotor activity and reduced lifespan, mirroring patient pathology, and these phenotypes could be partially rescued using a novel esterified derivative of riboflavin. Our findings expand the genetic, clinical and neuropathological features of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a downstream consequence of riboflavin transporter gene defects, and validate riboflavin esters as a potential therapeutic strategy 3).
performed a retrospective review of 288 consecutive neurosurgical procedures using a fibrinogen based collagen fleece (TachoComb), a resorbable mesh of collagen from horse tendons, coated with human fibrinogen, bovine thrombin, bovine aprotinin and riboflavin (for marking the coated side), for dural substitution. The fibrinogen and thrombin imitate the last step of the coagulation cascade. On contact with bleeding wounds or other body fluids the coagulation factors dissolve and a link is formed between the collagen carrier and the wound surface. Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin by splitting off peptides. Aprotinin prevents premature lysis of the fibrin clot by plasmin.
FINDINGS: Neither superficial or deep wound infections nor aseptic meningitis were noted. We found good fibrous incorporation of TachoComb into the surrounding normal dura. Postoperative cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) leaks developed in only five cases, who had to be re-operated, upon as well as one patient with a rebleeding. In another four cases, there was notable subcutaneous cerebrospinal-fluid accumulation without CSF-leak. They required a lumbar cerebrospinal-fluid drainage.
INTERPRETATION: We conclude that TachoComb is a valuable alternative to the patients fibrous tissues for dural repair in cases in which autogenous tissues are either unavailable or insufficient for proper reconstruction 4).