User Tools

Site Tools


Scalp cirsoid aneurysm

They are also referred to as aneurysma serpentinum, aneurysm racemosum, or plexiform angioma.

Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp is one of the rarest occurrences in neurosurgery. It is an aneurysmal tumor formed by arteriovenous fistula of the arteries and veins of the scalp 1)

They can be easily misdiagnosed and mistreated.

Historically their unusual portly appearance led to various synonyms being coined for the entity 2).


Scalp AVM (SAVM) is a rare condition 3) 4) and infrequently encountered by the neurosurgeon 5).


Its origin can be congenital or traumatic.

Congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of scalp are rare. They are usually not symptomatic at birth and are often misdiagnosed as haemangiomas. To date, only two cases of symptomatic neonatal scalp AVM have been reported in literature. Pathophysiology of congenital AVM is not completely understood but genetic and acquired causes are implicated. Diagnosis and management are often difficult and require multidisciplinary approach. Hussain et al. report a rare case of symptomatic congenital scalp AVM in a 10-day-old neonate who was successfully managed 6).


The clinical picture presents with complaints of increased scalp, scalp disfigurement, pain and neurological symptoms.

They can present a subcutaneous scalp lump or a large, pulsatile mass with a propensity to skin erosion and massive haemorrhage 7) 8).

The symptoms associated with cirsoid aneurysm of scalp vary according to the size of the fistula. Common clinical manifestations include loud bruit, pulsatile scalp mass, headache, and tinnitus. If left untreated, there is an increased risk of developing life-threatening complications such as aneurysmal hemorrhage or scalp necrosis 9) 10) 11).


Scalp cirsoid aneurysm treatment.


Even after complete surgical resection, a case of recurrence after 18 years has been reported 12), which is why regular follow-up is advised.

Systematic Review

Sofela et al. conducted a PUBMED, SCOPUS, OVID SP, SciELO, and INFORMA search using the keywords; “cirsoid,” “aneurysm,” “arteriovenous,” “malformation,” “scalp,” “vascular,” and “fistula.” They identified 74 pertinent papers, reporting 242 cases in addition to our reported index case.

Median age at presentation was 25 yr (range 1-72 yr); male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The most common symptoms were a pulsatile mass (94% of patients), headaches (25%), and tinnitus (20%). The median duration of symptoms was 3 yr (6 d to 31 yr), with 60.2% occurring spontaneously, 32.23% traumatic, and the rest iatrogenic. A total of 58.5% of cases were managed with surgical excision only, 21.6% with endovascular embolization only, and 14.5% with a combination of both methods. The complication rate observed in the endovascular embolization treatment cohort (55.8%) was significantly higher than that observed in the surgical excision only cohort (9.9%) (P < .00001) and in the combined therapy cohort (0%) (P < .00001). There is a low recurrence rate after treatment irrespective of modality: surgical excision only (6.3%), endovascular embolization only (8.3%), and combined therapy (0%).

Scalp cirsoid aneurysms are associated with good prognoses when recognized and managed appropriately. They suggested combining surgery with endovascular embolization as the optimum treatment modality 13).

Case series


Gangadharaswamy et al. present their experience in the surgical management of 3 cases with SAVMs using proximal feeding artery temporary occlusion followed by total surgical excision. The clinical presentations and radiological features of these cases are discussed in the article. Intraoperative blood loss was less than 150ml in all patients. Postoperative period was uneventful with no morbidity or mortality.

Intraoperative bleeding during surgical excision of scalp AVMs can be troublesome and challenging. To combat this, the authors advocate proximal feeding artery temporary clipping prior to surgical excision of the lesion. The external carotid artery was temporarily clipped in one case and superficial temporal artery in two patients.

Although most SAVMs can be operated by traditional method of excision, use of temporary clipping of feeding arteries (like Superficial temporal artery[STA], External carotid artery[ECA]) enables total excision of giant SAVMs with minimal blood loss for a definitive cure. This novel technique obviates the need for preoperative embolization 14).


Chowdhury et al., reported the experience of the surgical management of such lesions with a short review of the literature.

In this prospective study, 11 patients with scalp AVM and SVM, who underwent surgical excision of lesion in our hospital from 2006 to 2012, were included. All suspected high-flow AVM were investigated with the selective internal and external carotid digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) ± computed tomography (CT) scan of brain with CT angiogram or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain with MR angiogram, and all suspected low-flow vascular malformation (VM) was investigated with MRI of brain + MR angiogram. Eight were high-flow and three were low-flow VM.

All lesions were successfully excised. Scalp cosmetic aspects were acceptable in all cases. There was no major post-operative complication or recurrence till last follow-up.

With preoperative appropriate surgical planning, scalp AVM and SVM can be excised without major complication 15).


Eight patients with scalp vascular malformations admitted between 1997 and 2002.

All the patients were investigated with selective internal and external carotid angiography. Depending upon the origin of feeding arteries, the scalp vascular malformations were classified into two categories: Group I: the primary scalp arteriovenous malformations and Group II: secondary venous dilatations. Six patients belonged to Group I and two patients were in Group II.

Five patients belonging to Group I underwent successful excision of the arteriovenous malformation. There was no recurrence in this group. Of the two patients in Group II, one patient who had scalp vascular dilatation simulating a primary scalp vascular malformation underwent excision of the lesion. This patient developed severe postoperative brain edema and died.

Primary scalp vascular malformation can be excised safely. However, excision of secondary scalp venous dilatation without treatment of the intracranial component can be dangerous 16).


Muthukumar et al. treated 11 patients with cirsoid aneurysms surgically. All except one patient were males who were in the second and third decades of life. History of trauma was present in 6 patients. In one patient, the lesion had been present since birth. Occipital and frontal regions were the sites commonly involved. Superficial temporal, occipital and posterior auricular arteries were the most frequent feeding arteries. The size ranged from 3 cms to 12 cms. Following investigations were done: CT, MRI, MRA, angiography and Doppler studies.

Excision of the lesion was done in 8 patients and en bloc resection of the lesion with the scalp with reconstruction was done in the remaining three. One among the three patients who underwent en bloc resection had undergone prior surgery. None of the patients underwent preoperative endovascular treatment. One patient had undergone intralesional injection of sclerosing agents twice. Superficial scalp necrosis occurred in two patients but was treated successfully. All the patients except one had good cosmetic results and there was no recurrence during an average follow up of 18 months 17).


A retrospective review of 81 patients with extracranial arteriovenous malformation of the head and neck who presented to the Vascular Anomalies Program in Boston over the last 20 years. This study focused on the natural history and effectiveness of treatment. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Arteriovenous malformations occur in anatomic patterns. Sixty-nine percent occurred in the midface, 14 percent in the upper third of the face, and 17 percent in the lower third. The most common sites were cheek (31 percent), ear (16 percent), nose (11 percent), and forehead (10 percent). A vascular anomaly was apparent at birth in 59 percent of patients (82 percent in men, 44 percent in women). Ten percent of patients noted onset in childhood, 10 percent in adolescence, and 21 percent in adulthood. Eight patients first noted the malformation at puberty, and six others experienced exacerbation during puberty. Fifteen women noted appearance or expansion of the malformation during pregnancy. Bony involvement occurred in 22 patients, most commonly in the maxilla and mandible. In seven patients, the bone was the primary site; in 15 other patients, the bone was involved secondarily. Arteriovenous malformations were categorized according to Schobinger clinical staging: 27 percent in stage I (quiescence), 38 percent in stage II (expansion), and 38 percent in stage III (destruction). There was a single patient with stage IV malformation (decompensation). Stage I lesions remained stable for long periods. Expansion (stage II) was usually followed by pain, bleeding, and ulceration (stage III). Once present, these symptoms and signs inevitably progressed until the malformation was resected. Resection margins were best determined intraoperatively by the bleeding pattern of the incised tissue and by Doppler. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation frequently resulted in rapid progression of the arteriovenous malformation. The overall cure rate was 60 percent, defined as radiographic absence of arteriovenous malformation. Cure rate for small malformations was 69 percent with excision only and 62 percent for extensive malformations with combined embolization-resection. The cure rate was 75 percent for stage I, 67 percent for stage II, and 48 percent for stage III malformations. Outcome was not affected significantly by age at treatment, sex, Schobinger stage, or treatment method. Mean follow-up was 4.6 years 18).


Twenty-four patients with cirsoid aneurysms of the scalp. For nine patients (38%), the lesions were related to trauma. Each of the patients presented with a pulsatile scalp swelling with a bruit. No focal neurological deficits were noted in any of the patients. Scalp malformations in all patients were confirmed by selective internal and external carotid angiography, with no intracerebral component revealed in any of the patients. Twenty-one patients had the lesions surgically excised, with good results. The remaining three refused surgical intervention. Meticulous surgical technique, which includes removal of the pericranial component of the malformation, was paramount 19).


Ten patients with scalp arteriovenous fistulas associated with a large varix (cirsoid aneurysms) were treated with a combination of interventional neuroradiologic procedures. These procedures included transarterial embolization, transarterial embolization followed by surgical excision, and two new methods of treatment of cirsoid aneurysms: transvenous embolization and direct puncture of the fistula for embolization. The embolic materials included liquid adhesive agents, particulate agents, detachable balloons, and wire coils. The embolization was performed to lodge the embolic agents in the fistula or proximal draining vein, not just the feeding vessels. Surgery was performed in two cases to remove a small residual nidus of fistula that could not be completely treated with intravascular embolization. With the use of these forms of treatment, cures were obtained in seven patients, and clinical and angiographic improvement was achieved in three patients. No major morbidity, blood loss, or mortality occurred during the treatment of these patients. The follow-up period ranged from 1 month to 8 years 20).

Case reports

A 23-year female, with no known comorbid, came to the Neurosurgery Department of the Hospital, with the complaint of swelling on her forehead for 5 years. The swelling was a result of minor trauma to head where she hit her head against a wall. The swelling grew in size with time; it was not associated with a headache, bleeding or signs of rupture. She was otherwise completely healthy and had no significant past clinical history. On examination, the swelling was serpentine shaped, 10 x 1.5 cm extending from vertex to glabella. There was decreased hair growth in the area but no discoloration of the skin. The swelling was superficial, soft, non-tender, non-mobile, but fluctuating and pulsatile. On auscultation, a bruit alongwith a machinery murmur was heard over the swelling. Vitals were within normal limits and the rest of the examination was unremarkable. The diagnosis of a cirsoid aneurysm was made based on findings seen in CT angiogram. The angiogram showed a fistulous communication and the main feeding arteries were found to be superficial temporal and supraorbital arteries. There was no evidence of the involvement of sagittal sinus; however, small communication with calvarial emissary veins was noted. The patient was planned for 'en bloc' resection and the operation was performed by the neurosurgical team of our Hospital. During the operation, a U-shaped incision was applied which exposed the frontal region of the scalp, smaller scalp vessels were cauterised. No major connections with intracranial dural sinuses were found. The major vessels that were ligated and resected were the superficial temporal artery and the supraorbital artery. There were no operative or postoperative complications encountered. The patient showed remarkable recovery and was discharged on account of satisfactory condition 21).

A 6-year old boy who presented with recalcitrant generalized tonic-clonic seizures and clinico radiological features of congenital Cirsoid aneurysm. The lesion was supplied by occipital arteries and a large right parietal parasagittal intracranial feeding artery in a Yokouchi type C pattern. The venous drainage was communicating with the posterior part of the superior sagittal sinus. Six months after successful ligation of the feeding arteries and complete surgical excision of the lesion, the patient remains seizure-free 22).


A 42-year-old patient who presented with a progressive worsening of visual acuity in the right eye (lower quadrantanopia) and palpebral ptosis. Physical examination revealed a right exophthalmos and a right frontoparietal scalp soft swelling when the patient was in the supine position. Neurologic work-up showed a scalp AVM extending into the orbit and connected to an intraorbital cavernous angioma. The patient was treated with a frontotemporal craniotomy and decompression of the orbit.

In the rare case of intraorbital extension of a scalp AVM, neurologic symptoms may appear when the size of the vascular malformation increases with age. The aims of surgery should be decompression of the orbit and aesthetic preservation, rather than complete excision 23).


A 21-year-old man presented with a right-sided bruit and an enlarging palpable, pulsatile scalp mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 5-cm right sAVM and an azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA) feeding a 2-cm parafalcine vascular anomaly, as well as an unruptured 3-mm, flow-related, distal ACA aneurysm. sAVM feeders were catheterized and embolized with Onyx 18. During resection of the right frontal scalp lesion, dissection below the pericranium was developed to expose the low-flow extracranial sAVM. A supratrochlear arterial feeder and the vascular nidus were coagulated, but radical resection was avoided to prevent scalp necrosis. An anterior right frontal parasagittal craniotomy and dural opening were performed. A developmental anomaly of the right superior frontal gyrus was noted, and a dense vascular network within the anterior parafalcine fold was excised and coagulated. The distal ACA aneurysm was cauterized and wrapped to preserve the parent artery. The patient made an excellent recovery without neurologic deficits.

A review of the literature demonstrated a variety of endovascular and open surgical treatments with limited consensus on standard care. While sAVMs have been described in the literature, the combination of the diverse conditions seen in this case is unique 24).

Worm et al, present a case of giant scalp AVMs and its management, followed by a brief literature review on the subject. The diagnosis of scalp AVMs is based on physical examination and confirmed by internal and external carotid angiography or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Surgical excision is especially effective in scalp AVMs, and is the most frequently used treatment modality 25).


Massimi et al. report on the unusual case of a child harboring a complex intracranial AVM that initially presented as a small scalp mass. Actually, this young boy came to the authors' attention just for a small, soft, pulsatile, and reducible mass of the vertex that produced a circumscribed bone erosion. The presence of macrocranium and venous engorgement of the face, however, suggested the presence of an intracranial “mass.” The neuroimaging investigations pointed out a temporal AVM causing dilation of the intracranial sinuses and ectasia of the vein of the scalp; one of the veins was appreciable as a lump on the vertex 26).


A 35-year-old man presented with occipital subcutaneous pulsatile thrill. Senoglu et al. discussed and illustrated a rare sAVF, which was a high-flow sAVF fed by the occipital branch of the right ACE draining intraosseously into the SS. The case was treated by surgical origin ligation.

This case was unusual in the sense that it was apparently spontaneous, and the major venous drainage was through the bone into the SS. Arterial supply pattern of sAVF is very important in therapeutic decision-making. We suggest that surgical origin ligation for sAVF be considered if the case has 1 feeding artery 27).


Craniofacial cirsoid aneurysm: 2-stage treatment 28).


A 21-year-old female consulted in 1998 complaining of right tinnitus and a pulsating mass in the retroauricular region. The initial angiogram revealed an AVM in the right temporo-parietal subcutaneous space with feeders from the STA, an occipital artery, a posterior auricular artery, and a middle meningeal artery (MMA). Three years later, she complained of enlargement of the lesion, increased tinnitus, and alopecia. Repeat angiographic study revealed the presence of a nidus and the appearance of new feeders from a contralateral MMA and an ipsilateral middle cerebral artery; there was a de novo saccular aneurysm in the right STA. On the day preceding surgery, the left MMA was embolized to control intraoperative bleeding. The AVM was removed totally without any dermal complications.

This case suggests that scalp AVMs can become enlarged by capturing subcutaneous or intracranial feeders, and that the consequent hemodynamic stress may induce de novo aneurysms in scalp AVMs. Capillary endothelial cells were strongly immunostained for vascular endothelial growth factor 29).


Heilman et al. report a patient in whom a large traumatic cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp was eliminated using a combined neurosurgical and interventional neuroradiological approach. Transarterial embolization was utilized to reduce arterial blood supply to the fistula. Thrombogenic Gianturco spring coils were then introduced via direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysm. The aneurysm thrombosed and the multiple tortuous scalp vessels disappeared. One month after embolization, a small area of skin necrosis over the aneurysm necessitated surgical excision of the lesion. The thrombosed aneurysm was easily resected with minimal blood loss. Percutaneous embolization with thrombogenic coils in this case was a safe and effective ablative technique 30).


4: Heiferman DM, Syed HR, Li D, Rothstein BD, Shaibani A, Tomita T. Resection of an Embolized Cirsoid Aneurysm With Intracranial Venous Drainage: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Mar 1;16(3):E94. doi: 10.1093/ons/opy303. PubMed PMID: 30295882.

5: Albuquerque Sousa LH, Maranha Gatto LA, Demartini Junior Z, Koppe GL. Scalp Cirsoid Aneurysm: An Updated Systematic Literature Review and an Illustrative Case Report. World Neurosurg. 2018 Nov;119:416-427. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.08.098. Epub 2018 Aug 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 30149169.

6: Li D, Heiferman DM, Rothstein BD, Syed HR, Shaibani A, Tomita T. Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation (Cirsoid Aneurysm) in Adolescence: Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature. World Neurosurg. 2018 Aug;116:e1042-e1046. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.05.161. Epub 2018 Jun 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 29864562.

7: Varala S, Arakkal GK, Malkud S, Narayana B. Cirsoid aneurysm of scalp. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2018 Jan-Feb;84(1):57-58. doi: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_270_17. PubMed PMID: 29176252.

8: Gangadharaswamy SB, Maulyavantham Nagaraj N, Pai BS. Surgical management of scalp arteriovenous malformations using a novel surgical technique-Case series. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2017;37:250-253. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.06.057. Epub 2017 Jul 8. PubMed PMID: 28715722; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5514622.

9: Munakomi S, Bhattarai B, Cherian I. Conquering the odds: Cirsoid aneurysm with holocranial feeders-staged embolization, excision and grafting. Asian J Neurosurg. 2015 Jul-Sep;10(3):259-61. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.161167. PubMed PMID: 26396624; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4553749.

10: Lummus S, Breeze R, Lucia MS, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. Histopathologic features of intracranial vascular involvement in fibromuscular dysplasia, ehlers-danlos type IV, and neurofibromatosis I. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014 Oct;73(10):916-32. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000113. PubMed PMID: 25192048.

11: Goel V, Verma AK, Singh S, Puri SK. Cirsoid aneurysm of scalp: demonstration on CT angiography (CTA). BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Dec 11;2013. pii: bcr2013202459. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-202459. PubMed PMID: 24336588; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3863086.

12: Chowdhury FH, Haque MR, Kawsar KA, Sarker MH, Momtazul Haque AF. Surgical management of scalp arterio-venous malformation and scalp venous malformation: An experience of eleven cases. Indian J Plast Surg. 2013 Jan;46(1):98-107. doi: 10.4103/0970-0358.113723. PubMed PMID: 23960313; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3745130.

13: Saade C, Wilkinson M, Parker G, Dubenec S, Brennan P. Multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp–a manifestation of trauma. Clin Imaging. 2013 May-Jun;37(3):558-60. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2012.07.001. Epub 2012 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 23601772.

14: El Shazly AA, Saoud KM. Results of surgical excision of cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp without preoperative interventions. Asian J Neurosurg. 2012 Oct;7(4):191-6. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.106651. PubMed PMID: 23559986; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3613641.

15: Kumar A, Ahuja CK, Khandelwal N, Bakshi JB. Cirsoid aneurysm of the right pre-auricular region: an unusual cause of tinnitus managed by endovascular glue embolisation. J Laryngol Otol. 2012 Sep;126(9):923-7. doi: 10.1017/S0022215112001466. Epub 2012 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 22874530.

16: Tauro LF, Suhith G, Shetty P, Rao D. Cirsoid aneurysm of scalp. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2012 Jan;3(1):95-6. doi: 10.4103/0976-3147.91976. PubMed PMID: 22346211; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3271635.

17: Thrumurthy SG, Karthikesalingam A. Plain radiographic insight into a hard head. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2011 Feb;45(2):181-2. doi: 10.1177/1538574410391820. Epub 2010 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 21156709.

18: Corr PD. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. Singapore Med J. 2007 Oct;48(10):e268-9. PubMed PMID: 17909662.

19: Tiwary SK, Khanna R, Khanna AK. Craniofacial cirsoid aneurysm: 2-stage treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Mar;65(3):523-5. PubMed PMID: 17307602.

20: Gurkanlar D, Gonul M, Solmaz I, Gonul E. Cirsoid aneurysms of the scalp. Neurosurg Rev. 2006 Jul;29(3):208-12. Epub 2006 Apr 6. PubMed PMID: 16598510.

21: Muthukumar N, Rajagopal V, Manoharan AV, Durairaj N. Surgical management of cirsoid aneurysms. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002 Apr;144(4):349-56. PubMed PMID: 12021881.

22: Hendrix LE, Meyer GA, Erickson SJ. Cirsoid aneurysm treatment by percutaneous injection of sodium tetradecyl sulfate. Surg Neurol. 1996 Dec;46(6):557-60; discussion 560-1. PubMed PMID: 8956889.

23: Fisher-Jeffes ND, Domingo Z, Madden M, de Villiers JC. Arteriovenous malformations of the scalp. Neurosurgery. 1995 Apr;36(4):656-60; discussion 660. PubMed PMID: 7596493.

24: Luessenhop AJ. Cirsoid aneurysms of the scalp. J Neurosurg. 1991 Jul;75(1):167. PubMed PMID: 2045908.

25: Heilman CB, Kwan ES, Klucznik RP, Cohen AR. Elimination of a cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp by direct percutaneous embolization with thrombogenic coils. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1990 Aug;73(2):296-300. PubMed PMID: 2366088.

26: Rossitch E Jr, Khoshbin S. Harvey Cushing as medical artist: a case of cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. Surg Neurol. 1989 Sep;32(3):237-40. PubMed PMID: 2672397.

27: Tsai JC, Hung CC. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1988 Jan;87(1):21-7. PubMed PMID: 3361289.

28: Tani S, Kawamoto K, Kawamura Y, Matsumura H, Tanaka M, Ikeda K. [Vascular tumor of the scalp. Case of hemangioendothelioma and two cases of cirsoid aneurysm]. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1983 Sep;23(9):755-60. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 6196673.

29: Konishi Y, Tamagawa T, Hara M, Takeuchi K, Toyoda H. [Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp: case report]. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1982 Aug;22(8):673-6. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 6183610.

30: Irving AD, Thakur A, Walker WF. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1982 Mar;27(2):115. PubMed PMID: 7086718.

31: Balsys R, Cross R. Multiple aneurysm formation as a complication of interventive angiography. Radiology. 1978 Jan;126(1):91-2. PubMed PMID: 619442.

32: Bretto P, Pegoraro M, Ponzio F. [Recurrent cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp]. Minerva Chir. 1977 Nov 30;32(22):1409-12. Italian. PubMed PMID: 600430.

33: Chatterji P, Purohit GN, Soni NK. Cirsoid aneurysm of the auricle and adjoining scalp. J Laryngol Otol. 1977 Nov;91(11):997-1002. PubMed PMID: 591785.

34: Mohanty S, Rao CJ. A large cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp associated with epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1976 Sep;39(9):835-6. PubMed PMID: 993804; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC492470.

35: Dalous A, Pasquié J, Ghisolfi J, Pacsuzynski H. [Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp]. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1972 May;29(5):566. French. PubMed PMID: 4655661.

36: Khodadad G. Familial cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1971 Dec;34(6):664-7. PubMed PMID: 5158779; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1083498.

37: Coulthard R. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. Nurs Mirror Midwives J. 1966 Apr 22;122(4):63-4. PubMed PMID: 5176504.

38: VOLLMAR J, GEORG H, COERPER G. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF A GIGANTIC CIRSOID ANEURYSM OF THE HEAD]. Langenbecks Arch Klin Chir Ver Dtsch Z Chir. 1965 Jan 12;309:106-7. German. PubMed PMID: 14310383.

39: OLDFIELD MC, ADDISON NV. Cirsoid aneurysms of the scalp. Br Med J. 1962 Jul 7;2(5296):23-4. PubMed PMID: 14481706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1925556.

40: PICO C, COLONNA S. [On a case of cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp]. Riforma Med. 1962 Jan 13;76:49-54. Italian. PubMed PMID: 14486405.

41: GASPARINI FILHO S, MAYALL RC. [On a case of cirsoid aneurysm of the frontal region]. Angiologia. 1961 Nov-Dec;13:327-31. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 13897170.

42: GRANJON P, BONNAL J, BERGMAN J, ROGER J. [Cirsoid aneurysms of the scalp]. Mars Chir. 1959 May-Jun;11:375-8. French. PubMed PMID: 13828938.

43: DESAIVE P, MONNOYER E. [Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp]. Acta Chir Belg. 1952 Oct;51(7):641-7. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 13016111.

44: GROS C, MARTIN G. [Giant cirsoid aneurysm of the right frontal lobe extending to the vault and to the scalp; excision in one piece by amputation of the frontal lobe; hemostasis]. Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg. 1951 Jun;51(6):337-42. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 14868391.

45: GONI MORENO I. [Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp at 6 years of being operated]. Bol Trab Acad Argent Cir. 1949 Sep 7;33(19):587. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 15398981.

46: Grimes OF, Freeman NE. Cirsoid Aneurysm of the Scalp: Report of a Case. Ann Surg. 1949 Jan;129(1):123-30. PubMed PMID: 17859280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1513993.

47: ELKIN DC. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp. Ann Surg. 1946 Apr;123:591-600. PubMed PMID: 21024588.

48: Elkin DC. Cirsoid Aneurysm of the Scalp : Report of Four Cases. Ann Surg. 1946 Apr;123(4):591-600. PubMed PMID: 17858760; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1803574.

49: ELKIN DC. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp; report of four cases. Trans South Surg Assoc. 1946;57:122-31. PubMed PMID: 20283384.

50: Clunie T, Aberd CB. CIRSOID ANEURYSM OF THE SCALP. Br Med J. 1936 Dec 12;2(3962):1183-6. PubMed PMID: 20780323; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2459002.

51: Beaumont WM. Cirsoid Aneurysm of the Orbit, Forehead, and Scalp. Br Med J. 1897 Jul 31;2(1909):273-4. PubMed PMID: 20757184; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2407307.

Elkin DC. Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp with the report of an advanced case. Ann Surg 1924; 80:332-40.
Khodadad G. Arteriovenous malformations of the scalp. Ann Surg. 1973 Jan;177(1):79-85. PubMed PMID: 4682507; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1355509.
3) , 17)
Muthukumar N, Rajagopal V, Manoharan AV, Durairaj N. Surgical management of cirsoid aneurysms. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002 Apr;144(4):349-56. PubMed PMID: 12021881.
4) , 16)
Shenoy SN, Raja A. Scalp arteriovenous malformations. Neurol India. 2004 Dec;52(4):478-81. PubMed PMID: 15626838.
5) , 23)
Feletti A, Dimitriadis S, Vallone S, Pavesi G. Congenital Arteriovenous Malformation of the Scalp Involving the Orbit. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2018 Jun 15. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1641178. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29906812.
Hussain AS, Ahmed SA, Ali SR, Ahmad K. Congenital neonatal scalp arteriovenous malformation: a very rare entity. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Jun 30;2017. pii: bcr-2016-218756. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2016-218756. PubMed PMID: 28667009.
Domingo Z, Fisher-Jeffes ND, de Villiers JC. Surgical management of arteriovenous malformations of the scalp. In: Shmidek HN, editor. Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indications, Methods and Results. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Company; 2000. pp. 1331–1338.
Weinzweig N, Chin G, Polley J, Charbel F, Shownkeen H, Debrun G. Arteriovenous malformation of the forehead, anterior scalp and nasal dorsum. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:2433–9.
Mohamed WN, Abdullah NN, Muda AS. Scalp arteriovenous malformation: A case report. Malays J Med Sci 2008; 15:55-7.
Kohout MP, Hansen M, Pribaz JJ, Mulliken JB. Arteriovenous malformations of the head and neck: natural history and management. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998; 102:643-54.
11) , 12)
Wilkinson HA. Recurrence of vascular malformation. of the scalp 18 years following excision. Case report. J Neurosurg 1971; 34:435-7.
Sofela A, Osunronbi T, Hettige S. Scalp Cirsoid Aneurysms: Case Illustration and Systematic Review of Literature. Neurosurgery. 2020 Feb 1;86(2):E98-E107. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyz303. Erratum in: Neurosurgery. 2019 Dec 1;85(6):861. PubMed PMID: 31384940.
Gangadharaswamy SB, Maulyavantham Nagaraj N, Pai BS. Surgical management of scalp arteriovenous malformations using a novel surgical technique-Case series. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2017 Jul 8;37:250-253. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.06.057. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28715722.
Chowdhury FH, Haque MR, Kawsar KA, Sarker MH, Momtazul Haque AF. Surgical management of scalp arterio-venous malformation and scalp venous malformation: An experience of eleven cases. Indian J Plast Surg. 2013 Jan;46(1):98-107. doi: 10.4103/0970-0358.113723. PubMed PMID: 23960313; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3745130.
Kohout MP, Hansen M, Pribaz JJ, Mulliken JB. Arteriovenous malformations of the head and neck: natural history and management. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep;102(3):643-54. PubMed PMID: 9727427.
Fisher-Jeffes ND, Domingo Z, Madden M, de Villiers JC. Arteriovenous malformations of the scalp. Neurosurgery. 1995 Apr;36(4):656-60; discussion 660. PubMed PMID: 7596493.
Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Endovascular treatment of scalp arteriovenous fistulas associated with a large varix. Radiology. 1989 Nov;173(2):533-9. PubMed PMID: 2798886.
Ahmed A, Siddiqui R, Khan AA. Cirsoid Aneurysm of the Scalp: A Rare Finding in Neurosurgery. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2019 Jul;29(7):689-690. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2019.07.689. PubMed PMID: 31253229.
Idowu OE, Ayodele OA, Oshola HA. Congenital Cirsoid aneurysm communicating with the sagittal sinus and supplied by extra and intracranial arteries. Br J Neurosurg. 2019 Feb;33(1):88-89. doi: 10.1080/02688697.2018.1518516. Epub 2018 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 30317871.
Karsy M, Raheja A, Guan J, Osborn AG, Couldwell WT. Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation with Concomitant, Flow-Dependent Malformation and Aneurysm. World Neurosurg. 2016 Jun;90:708.e5-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.03.047. Epub 2016 Mar 25. PubMed PMID: 27018012.
Worm PV, Ruschel LG, Roxo MR, Camelo R. Giant scalp arteriovenous malformation. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2016 Dec;62(9):828-830. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.62.09.828. PubMed PMID: 28001255.
Massimi L, De Bonis P, Esposito G, Novegno F, Pettorini B, Tamburrini G, Caldarelli M, Di Rocco C. Vertex scalp mass as presenting sign of a complex intracranial vascular malformation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Apr;3(4):307-10. doi: 10.3171/2008.12.PEDS08408. PubMed PMID: 19338409.
Senoglu M, Yasim A, Gokce M, Senoglu N. Nontraumatic scalp arteriovenous fistula in an adult: technical report on an illustrative case. Surg Neurol. 2008 Aug;70(2):194-7. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2007.04.018. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 18291475.
Tiwary SK, Khanna R, Khanna AK. Craniofacial cirsoid aneurysm: 2-stage treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Mar;65(3):523-5. PubMed PMID: 17307602.
Matsushige T, Kiya K, Satoh H, Mizoue T, Kagawa K, Araki H. Arteriovenous malformation of the scalp: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol. 2004 Sep;62(3):253-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 15336874.
Heilman CB, Kwan ES, Klucznik RP, Cohen AR. Elimination of a cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp by direct percutaneous embolization with thrombogenic coils. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1990 Aug;73(2):296-300. PubMed PMID: 2366088.
scalp_cirsoid_aneurysm.txt · Last modified: 2020/02/05 23:06 by administrador