Type B comprises lesions in the area immediately lateral to the structures where type A tumors are located but sparing lateral gyri.
Type C tumors are larger lesions, which occupy the area of type A and type B simultaneously.
Type D tumors originate from the temporal mediobasal region and invade into the adjacent structures of the temporal stem, insular cortex, claustrum, putamen, or pallidum. The area occupied by a tumor in the axial plane was divided into anterior (a) and posterior (p) subregions. Progressive grading from A to D and from “a” to “p” was based on the view that larger and more posteriorly growing tumors were more difficult to remove. Lesions located in the anterior subregion (n = 173) were easier to remove by the transsylvian route (39%) or after partial anterior lobectomy (32%). For the posterior lesions (n = 62), a subtemporal approach was more appropriate (75%).
Based on a series of 235 temporal mediobasal tumors, a classification system was designed to aid in decision making about operability, surgical risk, and approach 1).
Morshed et al., from the UCSF Medical Center, described the technical considerations and functional outcomes in patients undergoing transcortical resection of gliomas of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL).
Patients with a glioma (WHO grades I-IV) located within the MTL who had undergone the transcortical approach in the period between 1998 and 2016 were identified through the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) tumor registry and were classified according to tumor location: preuncus, uncus, hippocampus/parahippocampus, and various combinations of the former groups. Patient and tumor characteristics and outcomes were determined from operative, radiology, pathology, and other clinical reports that were available through the UCSF electronic medical record.
Fifty patients with low- or high grade glioma were identified. The mean patient age was 46.8 years, and the mean follow-up was 3 years. Seizures were the presenting symptom in 82% of cases. Schramm classification types A, C, and D represented 34%, 28%, and 38% of the tumors, and the majority of lesions were located at least in part within the hippocampus/parahippocampus. For preuncus and preuncus/uncus tumors, a transcortical approach through the temporal pole allowed for resection. For most tumors of the uncus and those extending into the hippocampus/parahippocampus, a corticectomy was performed within the middle and/or inferior temporal gyri to approach the lesion. To locate the safest corridor for the corticectomy, language mapping was performed in 96.9% of the left-sided tumor cases, and subcortical motor mapping was performed in 52% of all cases. The mean volumetric extent of resection of low- and high-grade tumors was 89.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and did not differ by tumor location or Schramm type. By 3 months' follow-up, 12 patients (24%) had residual deficits, most of which were visual field deficits. Three patients with left-sided tumors (9.4% of dominant-cortex lesions) experienced word-finding difficulty at 3 months after resection, but 2 of these patients demonstrated complete resolution of symptoms by 1 year.
Mesial temporal lobe gliomas, including larger Schramm type C and D tumors, can be safely and aggressively resected via a transcortical equatorial approach when used in conjunction with cortical and subcortical mapping 2).