There are two types of Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath.
After nerve injury, Schwann cells (SCs) dedifferentiate, proliferate, and support axon regrowth. If axons fail to regenerate, denervated SCs eventually undergo apoptosis due, in part, to increased expression of the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75NTR.
Schwann cells play an important role in not only producing neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which promote growth, of both the damaged nerve and supporting Schwann cells, but also producing neurite promoting factors, which guide the growing axon.