Scientists have the responsibility of judging what is best for the patient and the optimal conditions for the conduct of a study. All physicians should ensure that research they participate in is ethically conducted. Every clinician should learn and receive training in the responsible conduct of research and publication, and each project must be reviewed by an institutional review board.
Scientists are under pressure to publish, particularly in high impact factor journals. Publication metrics, such as the number of publications, number of citations, journal impact factor, and h-index are used to measure academic productivity and scientists’ influence
Scientific misconduct is defined as any practice that deviates from those accepted by the scientific community and ultimately damages the integrity of the research process. “Sloppy Research” and “Scientific Fraud” include activities which can violate science, records and publication. Sloppy research is due to absence of appropriate training in research discipline and methodologies. In contrast, scientific fraud is defined as deliberate action during application, performance of research, and publication. It includes piracy, plagiarism and fraud. Research institutions should adopt rules and regulations to respond to allegations, start investigational operations and perform appropriate sanctions 1).