The evolution of simulation technology applied to surgery has assumed an important role in learning anatomy, completing procedural tasks, and improving accuracy and hand–eye coordination. In recent years, 3D inert models and virtual and augmented reality have been popularized among universities and through courses to train young residents 1) 2).

Surgical simulation

Chawla S, Devi S, Calvachi P, Gormley WB, Rueda-Esteban R. Evaluation of simulation models in neurosurgical training according to face, content, and construct validity: a systematic review. Acta Neurochir. (2022) 164(4):947–66. 10.1007/s00701-021-05003-x
Bernardo A. Virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training. World Neurosurg. (2017) 106:1015–29. 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.140
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