Primary amyloidoma of the spine is very rare and has a predilection for the thoracic region. The tumor-like appearance and behavior make it difficult to diagnose on imaging studies. Despite its rarity and nonspecific radiologic findings, primary spinal amyloidoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of an osteolytic and calcified mass of the spine 1).
A female patient with high-level paraparesis and lumbar stenosis in L2-L3 with combined spondylolisthesis (ASIA Impairemet Scale C). Paraparesis increased shortly after lumbar osteosynthesis. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the thoracic spine revealed medullary compression at the D5 level due to an epidural and paraspinal mass with concomitant bone infiltration. Operative decompression followed. Histopathological examination initially revealed amyloidoma. Finally the lesion was classified as a plasma cell myeloma.
Plasma cell myeloma may rarely present as a solitary amyloidoma in the initial pathological examination with the potential to cause spinal cord compression associated to osteolytic lesions of the spine 2).