Is the collection of tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures used by humans. Engineering is the discipline that seeks to study and design new technologies. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.

Technological progress has been proposed as the main driving force behind the growth of health care expenditures 1) 2).

see Instruments

see Companies

Neurosurgery is a rapdily evolving speciality and has often taken a lead in adopting new technologies. Advancing technology however is not the only force driving change in this discipline.

In the current boom of technology, the combination of ‘big data’ and artificial intelligence 3) 4) 5) creates the opportunity to comprehensively integrate evidence based decision making into the healthcare system. These factors are converging during a time when we are seeing significant increases in Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption following the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, from 3.2% among eligible hospitals before the Act to 14.2% after 6).

Optical technology

Single-cell technology

Newhouse JP. Medical care costs: how much welfare loss? J Econ Perspect. 1992;6:3–21.
Barros PP. The black box of health care expenditure growth determinants. Health Econ. 1998;7:533–544.
Senders JT, Zaki MM, Karhade AV, et al. An introduction and overview of machine learning in neurosurgical care. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2018;160(1):29-38.
Senders JT, Staples PC, Karhade AV, et al. Machine learning and neurosurgical outcome prediction: A systematic review. World Neurosurg. 2018;109:476-486.
Senders JT, Arnaout O, Karhade AV, et al. Natural and artificial intelligence in neurosurgery: A systematic review. Neurosurgery. 2018;83(2):181-192.
Adler-Milstein J, Jha AK. HITECH Act drove large gains in hospital electronic health record adoption. Health Aff. 2017;36(8):1416-1422.
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