Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common condition that causes the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood to become too high.

It can cause symptoms like excessive thirst, needing to pee a lot and tiredness. It can also increase your risk of getting serious problems with your eyes, heart and nerves.

It's a lifelong condition that can affect your everyday life. You may need to change your diet, take medicines and have regular check-ups.

It's caused by problems with a chemical in the body (hormone) called insulin. It's often linked to being overweight or inactive, or having a family history of type 2 diabetes.

The prevalence of both Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is increasing with the aging of the population. Studies from the last several years have shown that people with diabetes have an increased risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the authors of this consensus review tried to elaborate on the role of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in both AD and VaD. Based on the clinical and experimental work of scientists from 18 countries participating in the International Congress on Vascular Disorders and on literature search using PUBMED, it can be concluded that T2DM is a risk factor for both, AD and VaD, based on a pathology of glucose utilization. This pathology is the consequence of a disturbance of insulin-related mechanisms leading to brain insulin resistance. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms for AD and VaD are different in many aspects, the contribution of T2DM and insulin resistant brain state (IRBS) to cerebrovascular disturbances in both disorders cannot be neglected. Therefore, early diagnosis of metabolic parameters including those relevant for T2DM is required. Moreover, it is possible that therapeutic options utilized today for diabetes treatment may also have an effect on the risk for dementia. T2DM/IRBS contribute to pathological processes in AD and VaD 1).

Accumulating evidence revealed that IGF2BP2 mediates the pathogenesis of T2DM and cancer by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and tumorigenesis. A review provides insight into the potential involvement of this RNA binding protein in the link between T2DM and cancer 2).

Riederer P, Korczyn AD, Ali SS, Bajenaru O, Choi MS, Chopp M, Dermanovic-Dobrota V, Grünblatt E, Jellinger KA, Kamal MA, Kamal W, Leszek J, Sheldrick-Michel TM, Mushtaq G, Meglic B, Natovich R, Pirtosek Z, Rakusa M, Salkovic-Petrisic M, Schmidt R, Schmitt A, Sridhar GR, Vécsei L, Wojszel ZB, Yaman H, Zhang ZG, Cukierman-Yaffe T. The diabetic brain and cognition. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017 Aug 1. doi: 10.1007/s00702-017-1763-2. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 28766040.
Cao J, Yan W, Ma X, Huang H, Yan H. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 - a potential link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jun 1:dgab391. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab391. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34061963.
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